- 1.1: An election will be held next week and, by polling a sample of the ...
- 1.2: The approach used in 1(e) led to a disastrous prediction in the 193...
- 1.3: A researcher is trying to discover the average age at death for peo...
- 1.4: To determine the proportion of people in your town who are smokers,...
- 1.5: A university plans on conducting a survey of its recent graduates t...
- 1.6: An article reported that a survey of clothing worn by pedestrians k...
- 1.7: Critique Graunts method for estimating the population of London. Wh...
- 1.8: The London bills of mortality listed 12,246 deaths in 1658. Supposi...
- 1.9: Suppose you were a seller of annuities in 1662 when Graunts book wa...
- 1.10: Based on Graunts mortality table: (a) What proportion of people sur...
Solutions for Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
Full solutions for Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition
2 k p - factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each
In statistical hypothesis testing, this is a hypothesis other than the one that is being tested. The alternative hypothesis contains feasible conditions, whereas the null hypothesis speciies conditions that are under test
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to a future population. Stability needs to be assumed. See Enumerative study
An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.
Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.
The probability 1?a associated with a conidence interval expressing the probability that the stated interval will contain the true parameter value.
A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t
A parameter in a tabular CUSUM algorithm that is determined from a trade-off between false alarms and the detection of assignable causes.
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.
A subset of effects in a fractional factorial design that deine the aliases in the design.
Discrete random variable
A random variable with a inite (or countably ininite) range.
A subset of a sample space.
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chi-square random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
In statistical quality control, that portion of a number of units or the output of a process that is defective.
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on
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