 12.12.1.1: Suppose that a dependent variable y is related to an explanatoryvar...
 12.12.1.2: Suppose that the purity of a chemical solution y is related to the ...
 12.12.1.3: Consider the linear regression model y =5+0.9x, with =1.4, which re...
 12.12.1.4: Suppose that you wish to use simple linear regression to investigat...
 12.12.1.5: Consider the linear regression model y =675.305.87x with =7.32, whi...
 12.12.1.6: In simple linear regression, the dependent variable is the: A. Inpu...
 12.12.1.7: In simple linear regression: A. The input variable x and the output...
 12.12.2.1: Show that the values 1 =SXY SXXand 0 = y 1 xsatisfy the normal equa...
 12.12.2.2: A data set has n =20,20 i=1xi =8.552,20 i=1yi =398.2,20 i=1x2 i =5....
 12.12.2.3: A data set has n =30,30 i=1xi =67.11,30 i=1yi =1322.7,30 i=1x2 i =5...
 12.12.2.4: Oil Well Drilling Costs Estimating the costs of drilling oil wells ...
 12.12.2.5: Truck Unloading Times A warehouse manager is interested in the poss...
 12.12.2.6: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements DS 12.2.3 is a data set concer...
 12.12.2.7: Property Tax Appraisals A Realtor collects the data set given in DS...
 12.12.2.8: Management of Computer Systems During the installation of a large c...
 12.12.2.9: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances The data set in DS 12.2.6 conc...
 12.12.2.10: In simple linear regression: A. The standard least squares t nds th...
 12.12.2.11: In simple linear regression: A. Extrapolation should never be done....
 12.12.3.1: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =18 data points, an e...
 12.12.3.2: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =22 data points, an e...
 12.12.3.3: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well drilling ...
 12.12.3.4: Truck Unloading Times Consider the data set of the times taken to u...
 12.12.3.5: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.3.6: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.3.7: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.3.8: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.3.9: A simple linear regression is performed on 20 data pairs (xi, yi). ...
 12.12.3.10: Ceramic Baking Procedures Several samples of ceramic were made with...
 12.12.3.11: In simple linear regression, the computer output contains a pvalue...
 12.12.3.12: Show that the random variable n i=1 1 n + (xi x)(x x) SXX Yi where ...
 12.12.3.13: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =17 data points, the ...
 12.12.3.14: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =24 data points, the ...
 12.12.3.15: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.3.16: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.3.17: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.3.18: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.3.19: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.3.20: A simple linear regression analysis is performed to determine how t...
 12.12.3.21: A linear regression model is tted to the dataxy 37.0 65.0 36.4 67.2...
 12.12.5.1: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =17 data points, the ...
 12.12.5.2: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =24 data points, the ...
 12.12.5.3: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.5.4: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.5.5: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.5.6: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.5.7: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.5.8: The amount of catalyst (x) and the yield (y) of a chemical experime...
 12.12.5.9: A linear regression model is tted to the data xy 17.1 45.9 18.4 48....
 12.12.5.10: In simple linear regression, if the regression model is statistical...
 12.12.6.1: Calculate the missing values in the analysis of variance table for ...
 12.12.6.2: Repeat 12.6.1 for the analysis of variance table shown in Figure 12...
 12.12.6.3: A data set has n =10,10 i=1yi =908.8,10 i=1y2 i =83,470, and 2 =0.9...
 12.12.6.4: A data set has n =25,25 i=1xi =1356.25,25 i=1yi =6225,25 i=1x2 i =9...
 12.12.6.5: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.6.6: Truck Unloading Times Consider the data set of the times taken to u...
 12.12.6.7: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.6.8: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.6.9: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.6.10: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.6.11: In simple linear regression, the coefcient of determination measure...
 12.12.6.12: In simple linear regression: A. The larger the coefcient of determi...
 12.12.7.1: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.7.2: Truck Unloading Times Considerthedatasetofthetimestakentounloadatru...
 12.12.7.3: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.7.4: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.7.5: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.11.5.20: Suppose that you wish to use simple linear regression to investigat...
 12.12.7.6: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.11.5.21: Consider the linear regression model y =675.305.87x with =7.32, whi...
 12.12.7.7: In simple linear regression:A. Data points that are above the line ...
 12.11.5.22: In simple linear regression, the dependent variable is the: A. Inpu...
 12.12.8.1: Make a plot of the data set given in DS 12.8.1. What intrinsically ...
 12.11.5.23: In simple linear regression: A. The input variable x and the output...
 12.12.8.2: Repeat 12.8.1 for the data set given in DS 12.8.2.
 12.12.2.1: Show that the values 1 =SXY SXXand 0 = y 1 xsatisfy the normal equa...
 12.12.8.3: Cell Growth A bioengineer measures the growth rate of a substance b...
 12.12.2.2: A data set has n =20,20 i=1xi =8.552,20 i=1yi =398.2,20 i=1x2 i =5....
 12.12.8.4: Synthetic Human Arteries In an experiment to investigate the suitab...
 12.12.2.3: A data set has n =30,30 i=1xi =67.11,30 i=1yi =1322.7,30 i=1x2 i =5...
 12.12.8.5: Anexperimenterhasdataontheyieldandthetemperature of a chemical proc...
 12.12.2.4: Oil Well Drilling Costs Estimating the costs of drilling oil wells ...
 12.12.8.6: Explain how simple linear regression can be used to t the model ey/...
 12.12.2.5: Truck Unloading Times A warehouse manager is interested in the poss...
 12.12.8.7: Strengths of Cracked Plastic Compounds A crack in a plastic compoun...
 12.12.2.6: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements DS 12.2.3 is a data set concer...
 12.12.9.1: Show that if the data points lie on a straight line with yi =a+bxi ...
 12.12.2.7: Property Tax Appraisals A Realtor collects the data set given in DS...
 12.12.9.2: Show that if x i =axi +b and y i =cyi +d for some constants a, b, c...
 12.12.2.8: Management of Computer Systems During the installation of a large c...
 12.12.9.3: Oil Well Drilling Costs The data set of oil well costs given in DS ...
 12.12.2.9: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances The data set in DS 12.2.6 conc...
 12.12.9.4: Truck Unloading Times The data set of the times taken to unload a t...
 12.12.2.10: In simple linear regression: A. The standard least squares t nds th...
 12.12.9.5: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements The data set of aerobic tness ...
 12.12.2.11: In simple linear regression: A. Extrapolation should never be done....
 12.12.9.6: Property Tax Appraisals The data set of appraised house values give...
 12.12.3.1: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =18 data points, an e...
 12.12.9.7: Management of Computer Systems The data set of the times taken for ...
 12.12.3.2: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =22 data points, an e...
 12.12.9.8: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances The data set of vacuum transdu...
 12.12.3.3: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well drilling ...
 12.12.9.9: Ceramic Baking Procedures The data set of ceramic densities and bak...
 12.12.3.4: Truck Unloading Times Consider the data set of the times taken to u...
 12.12.9.10: The sample correlation coefcient between y and x is 0.3. If a simpl...
 12.12.3.5: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.9.11: Suppose that variables A and B have a positive correlation. Provide...
 12.12.3.6: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.9.12: In simple linear regression, the sample correlation coefcient betwe...
 12.12.3.7: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.9.13: Suppose that sales staff with more years on the job tend to have gr...
 12.12.3.8: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.9.14: If the correlation between two variables is0.7, then: A. As one var...
 12.12.3.9: A simple linear regression is performed on 20 data pairs (xi, yi). ...
 12.12.12.1: SAT Scores and Exam Completion Times DS 12.12.1 gives the times tak...
 12.12.3.10: Ceramic Baking Procedures Several samples of ceramic were made with...
 12.12.12.2: Rolling Mill Scrap The data used in Example 43 are taken from the d...
 12.12.3.11: In simple linear regression, the computer output contains a pvalue...
 12.12.12.3: Friction Power Loss from Engine Bearings DS 12.12.3 contains data f...
 12.12.3.12: Show that the random variable n i=1 1 n + (xi x)(x x) SXX Yi where ...
 12.12.12.4: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger A double pipe heat exchanger is a device...
 12.12.3.13: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =17 data points, the ...
 12.12.12.5: Capacitance Discharge Pulse Times Electrical capacitors can be used...
 12.12.3.14: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =24 data points, the ...
 12.12.12.6: Deformability of Arteries with Atherosclerosis DS 12.12.6 contains ...
 12.12.3.15: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.12.7: Catalyst Effect on Chemical Process DS 12.12.7 contains data on the...
 12.12.3.16: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.12.8: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =20 data points, the ...
 12.12.3.17: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.12.9: Bacteria Cultures A simple linear regression model is to be tted to...
 12.12.3.18: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.12.10: A simple linear regression analysis has n =20 and R2 =0.853. What c...
 12.12.3.19: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.12.11: Gold Extraction from Unprocessed Ore Consider the data set in DS 12...
 12.12.3.20: A simple linear regression analysis is performed to determine how t...
 12.12.12.12: Are the following statements true or false? (a) In simple linear re...
 12.12.3.21: A linear regression model is tted to the dataxy 37.0 65.0 36.4 67.2...
 12.12.12.13: Downloading Computer Files The data set in DS 12.12.10 shows the si...
 12.12.5.1: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =17 data points, the ...
 12.12.12.14: Underwater Speed of Sound Pressure changes in seawater affect the s...
 12.12.5.2: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =24 data points, the ...
 12.12.12.15: Oxygen Purity in Chemical Distillation Processes DS 12.12.12 contai...
 12.12.5.3: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.12.16: Cotton Bale Productivities DS 12.12.13 contains the cotton bales pe...
 12.12.5.4: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.12.17: Aerodynamics and Wing Design DS 12.12.14 contains the wing lift gen...
 12.12.5.5: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.12.18: Vapor Pressure Modeling for a Gas DS 12.12.15 contains the vapor pr...
 12.12.5.6: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.12.19: Static Breaking Strengths of Ropes DS 12.12.16 contains the static ...
 12.12.5.7: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.12.20: Protein Concentrations from Cell Lysing In a biochemical experiment...
 12.12.5.8: The amount of catalyst (x) and the yield (y) of a chemical experime...
 12.12.12.21: Heart Tissue Elasticity A sample of heart tissue was subjected to d...
 12.12.5.9: A linear regression model is tted to the data xy 17.1 45.9 18.4 48....
 12.12.12.22: Wind Speeds and Air Pressures of Hurricanes DS 12.12.19 contains th...
 12.12.5.10: In simple linear regression, if the regression model is statistical...
 12.12.12.23: Thorax Width and Dry Mass of Wasps DS 12.12.20 contains the thorax ...
 12.12.6.1: Calculate the missing values in the analysis of variance table for ...
 12.12.12.24: In simple linear regression: A. An association between two variable...
 12.12.6.2: Repeat 12.6.1 for the analysis of variance table shown in Figure 12...
 12.12.12.25: A researcher wants to investigate how the revenue of a company (a c...
 12.12.6.3: A data set has n =10,10 i=1yi =908.8,10 i=1y2 i =83,470, and 2 =0.9...
 12.12.12.26: Carbon Footprints Analyze the data in DS 12.12.21, which contains e...
 12.12.6.4: A data set has n =25,25 i=1xi =1356.25,25 i=1yi =6225,25 i=1x2 i =9...
 12.12.12.27: Mining Mill Operations DS 12.12.22 contains daily data for the mill...
 12.12.6.5: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.12.28: Mercury Levels in Coal DS 12.12.23 shows the mercury levels of coal...
 12.12.6.6: Truck Unloading Times Consider the data set of the times taken to u...
 12.12.12.29: Natural Gas Consumption DS 12.12.24 contains two data sets. The rst...
 12.12.6.7: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.12.30: In simple linear regression, if the regression model is not statist...
 12.12.6.8: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.12.31: In simple linear regression, the computer output contains a pvalue...
 12.12.6.9: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.12.32: In simple linear regression: A. The sample correlation coefcient be...
 12.12.6.10: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.12.33: Suppose that a companys sales increase when the economy is doing we...
 12.12.6.11: In simple linear regression, the coefcient of determination measure...
 12.12.12.34: Suppose that a companys sales increase when the economy is doing we...
 12.12.6.12: In simple linear regression: A. The larger the coefcient of determi...
 12.12.12.35: In simple linear regression: A. The existence of a surrogate variab...
 12.12.7.1: Oil Well Drilling Costs Consider the data set of oil well costs giv...
 12.12.12.36: In simple linear regression, the independent variable is also known...
 12.12.7.2: Truck Unloading Times Considerthedatasetofthetimestakentounloadatru...
 12.12.12.37: In simple linear regression: A. The coefcient of determination R2 c...
 12.12.7.3: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements Consider the data set of aerob...
 12.12.12.38: In simple linear regression, if the pvalue is 0.31 and the regress...
 12.12.7.4: Property Tax Appraisals Consider the data set of appraised house va...
 12.12.12.39: In simple linear regression: A. The model can be used for predictio...
 12.12.7.5: Management of Computer Systems Consider the data set of the times t...
 12.12.12.40: In simple linear regression: A. The standard model may be referred ...
 12.12.7.6: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances Consider the data set of vacuu...
 12.12.12.41: In simple linear regression: A. Extrapolation may be necessary but ...
 12.12.7.7: In simple linear regression:A. Data points that are above the line ...
 12.12.12.42: In simple linear regression: A. The output variable y must be conti...
 12.12.8.1: Make a plot of the data set given in DS 12.8.1. What intrinsically ...
 12.12.12.43: In simple linear regression, a data point with a residual of 7.3 is...
 12.12.8.2: Repeat 12.8.1 for the data set given in DS 12.8.2.
 12.12.12.44: In simple linear regression: A. High leverage data points should be...
 12.12.8.3: Cell Growth A bioengineer measures the growth rate of a substance b...
 12.12.12.45: An investor is interested in analyzing the percentage changes in a ...
 12.12.8.4: Synthetic Human Arteries In an experiment to investigate the suitab...
 12.12.12.46: An investor is interested in analyzing the percentage changes in a ...
 12.12.8.5: Anexperimenterhasdataontheyieldandthetemperature of a chemical proc...
 12.12.12.47: An investor is interested in analyzing the percentage changes in a ...
 12.12.8.6: Explain how simple linear regression can be used to t the model ey/...
 12.12.8.7: Strengths of Cracked Plastic Compounds A crack in a plastic compoun...
 12.12.9.1: Show that if the data points lie on a straight line with yi =a+bxi ...
 12.12.9.2: Show that if x i =axi +b and y i =cyi +d for some constants a, b, c...
 12.12.9.3: Oil Well Drilling Costs The data set of oil well costs given in DS ...
 12.12.9.4: Truck Unloading Times The data set of the times taken to unload a t...
 12.12.9.5: VO2max Aerobic Fitness Measurements The data set of aerobic tness ...
 12.12.9.6: Property Tax Appraisals The data set of appraised house values give...
 12.12.9.7: Management of Computer Systems The data set of the times taken for ...
 12.12.9.8: Vacuum Transducer Bobbin Resistances The data set of vacuum transdu...
 12.12.9.9: Ceramic Baking Procedures The data set of ceramic densities and bak...
 12.12.9.10: The sample correlation coefcient between y and x is 0.3. If a simpl...
 12.12.9.11: Suppose that variables A and B have a positive correlation. Provide...
 12.12.9.12: In simple linear regression, the sample correlation coefcient betwe...
 12.12.9.13: Suppose that sales staff with more years on the job tend to have gr...
 12.12.9.14: If the correlation between two variables is0.7, then: A. As one var...
 12.12.12.1: SAT Scores and Exam Completion Times DS 12.12.1 gives the times tak...
 12.12.12.2: Rolling Mill Scrap The data used in Example 43 are taken from the d...
 12.12.12.3: Friction Power Loss from Engine Bearings DS 12.12.3 contains data f...
 12.12.12.4: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger A double pipe heat exchanger is a device...
 12.12.12.5: Capacitance Discharge Pulse Times Electrical capacitors can be used...
 12.12.12.6: Deformability of Arteries with Atherosclerosis DS 12.12.6 contains ...
 12.12.12.7: Catalyst Effect on Chemical Process DS 12.12.7 contains data on the...
 12.12.12.8: In a simple linear regression analysis with n =20 data points, the ...
 12.12.12.9: Bacteria Cultures A simple linear regression model is to be tted to...
 12.12.12.10: A simple linear regression analysis has n =20 and R2 =0.853. What c...
 12.12.12.11: Gold Extraction from Unprocessed Ore Consider the data set in DS 12...
 12.12.12.12: Are the following statements true or false? (a) In simple linear re...
 12.12.12.13: Downloading Computer Files The data set in DS 12.12.10 shows the si...
 12.12.12.14: Underwater Speed of Sound Pressure changes in seawater affect the s...
 12.12.12.15: Oxygen Purity in Chemical Distillation Processes DS 12.12.12 contai...
 12.12.12.16: Cotton Bale Productivities DS 12.12.13 contains the cotton bales pe...
 12.12.12.17: Aerodynamics and Wing Design DS 12.12.14 contains the wing lift gen...
 12.12.12.18: Vapor Pressure Modeling for a Gas DS 12.12.15 contains the vapor pr...
 12.12.12.19: Static Breaking Strengths of Ropes DS 12.12.16 contains the static ...
 12.12.12.20: Protein Concentrations from Cell Lysing In a biochemical experiment...
 12.12.12.21: Heart Tissue Elasticity A sample of heart tissue was subjected to d...
 12.12.12.22: Wind Speeds and Air Pressures of Hurricanes DS 12.12.19 contains th...
 12.12.12.23: Thorax Width and Dry Mass of Wasps DS 12.12.20 contains the thorax ...
 12.12.12.24: In simple linear regression: A. An association between two variable...
 12.12.12.25: A researcher wants to investigate how the revenue of a company (a c...
 12.12.12.26: Carbon Footprints Analyze the data in DS 12.12.21, which contains e...
 12.12.12.27: Mining Mill Operations DS 12.12.22 contains daily data for the mill...
 12.12.12.28: Mercury Levels in Coal DS 12.12.23 shows the mercury levels of coal...
 12.12.12.29: Natural Gas Consumption DS 12.12.24 contains two data sets. The rst...
 12.12.12.30: In simple linear regression, if the regression model is not statist...
 12.12.12.31: In simple linear regression, the computer output contains a pvalue...
 12.12.12.32: In simple linear regression: A. The sample correlation coefcient be...
 12.12.12.33: Suppose that a companys sales increase when the economy is doing we...
 12.12.12.34: Suppose that a companys sales increase when the economy is doing we...
 12.12.12.35: In simple linear regression: A. The existence of a surrogate variab...
 12.12.12.36: In simple linear regression, the independent variable is also known...
 12.12.12.37: In simple linear regression: A. The coefcient of determination R2 c...
 12.12.12.38: In simple linear regression, if the pvalue is 0.31 and the regress...
 12.12.12.39: In simple linear regression: A. The model can be used for predictio...
 12.12.12.40: In simple linear regression: A. The standard model may be referred ...
 12.12.12.41: In simple linear regression: A. Extrapolation may be necessary but ...
 12.12.12.42: In simple linear regression: A. The output variable y must be conti...
 12.12.12.43: In simple linear regression, a data point with a residual of 7.3 is...
 12.12.12.44: In simple linear regression: A. High leverage data points should be...
 12.12.12.45: An investor is interested in analyzing the percentage changes in a ...
 12.12.12.46: An investor is interested in analyzing the percentage changes in a ...
 12.12.12.47: An investor is interested in analyzing the percentage changes in a ...
Solutions for Chapter 12: Simple Linear Regression and Correlation
Full solutions for Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists  4th Edition
ISBN: 9781111827045
Solutions for Chapter 12: Simple Linear Regression and Correlation
Get Full SolutionsChapter 12: Simple Linear Regression and Correlation includes 269 full stepbystep solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists, edition: 4. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781111827045. Since 269 problems in chapter 12: Simple Linear Regression and Correlation have been answered, more than 11811 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter.

2 k p  factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each

Acceptance region
In hypothesis testing, a region in the sample space of the test statistic such that if the test statistic falls within it, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This terminology is used because rejection of H0 is always a strong conclusion and acceptance of H0 is generally a weak conclusion

Addition rule
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).

Alternative hypothesis
In statistical hypothesis testing, this is a hypothesis other than the one that is being tested. The alternative hypothesis contains feasible conditions, whereas the null hypothesis speciies conditions that are under test

Attribute
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.

Axioms of probability
A set of rules that probabilities deined on a sample space must follow. See Probability

Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).

Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.

Chisquare test
Any test of signiicance based on the chisquare distribution. The most common chisquare tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data

Combination.
A subset selected without replacement from a set used to determine the number of outcomes in events and sample spaces.

Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.

Correlation coeficient
A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).

Critical value(s)
The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t

Dependent variable
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.

Error mean square
The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

Exponential random variable
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

Forward selection
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.

Fraction defective
In statistical quality control, that portion of a number of units or the output of a process that is defective.

Gamma function
A function used in the probability density function of a gamma random variable that can be considered to extend factorials