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# Solutions for Chapter 2.4: Graphs That Enlighten and Graphs That Deceive

## Full solutions for Essentials of Statistics | 5th Edition

ISBN: 9780321924599

Solutions for Chapter 2.4: Graphs That Enlighten and Graphs That Deceive

Solutions for Chapter 2.4
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##### ISBN: 9780321924599

Chapter 2.4: Graphs That Enlighten and Graphs That Deceive includes 26 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Essentials of Statistics, edition: 5. Since 26 problems in chapter 2.4: Graphs That Enlighten and Graphs That Deceive have been answered, more than 15625 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Essentials of Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321924599. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• 2 k factorial experiment.

A full factorial experiment with k factors and all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each.

• Bayes’ estimator

An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.

• Biased estimator

Unbiased estimator.

• Central composite design (CCD)

A second-order response surface design in k variables consisting of a two-level factorial, 2k axial runs, and one or more center points. The two-level factorial portion of a CCD can be a fractional factorial design when k is large. The CCD is the most widely used design for itting a second-order model.

• Conidence coeficient

The probability 1?a associated with a conidence interval expressing the probability that the stated interval will contain the true parameter value.

• Conidence interval

If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made

• Contingency table.

A tabular arrangement expressing the assignment of members of a data set according to two or more categories or classiication criteria

• Correlation coeficient

A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).

• Correlation matrix

A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the off-diagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .

• Covariance

A measure of association between two random variables obtained as the expected value of the product of the two random variables around their means; that is, Cov(X Y, ) [( )( )] =? ? E X Y ? ? X Y .

• Curvilinear regression

An expression sometimes used for nonlinear regression models or polynomial regression models.

• Design matrix

A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.

• Error mean square

The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

• Error of estimation

The difference between an estimated value and the true value.

• Error propagation

An analysis of how the variance of the random variable that represents that output of a system depends on the variances of the inputs. A formula exists when the output is a linear function of the inputs and the formula is simpliied if the inputs are assumed to be independent.

• F distribution.

The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chi-square random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

• False alarm

A signal from a control chart when no assignable causes are present

• Gaussian distribution

Another name for the normal distribution, based on the strong connection of Karl F. Gauss to the normal distribution; often used in physics and electrical engineering applications

• Generator

Effects in a fractional factorial experiment that are used to construct the experimental tests used in the experiment. The generators also deine the aliases.

• Hat matrix.

In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? -1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .

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