- 2-3.1: Number of Hurricanes Construct a vertical bar chart for the total n...
- 2-3.2: Worldwide Sales of Fast Foods The worldwide sales (in billions of d...
- 2-3.3: Calories Burned While Exercising Construct a Pareto chart for the f...
- 2-3.4: Roller Coaster Mania TheWorld Roller Coaster Census Report lists th...
- 2-3.5: Instruction Time The average weekly instruction time in schools for...
- 2-3.6: Sales of Coffee The data show the total retail sales (in billions o...
- 2-3.7: Safety Record of U.S. Airlines The safety record of U.S. airlines f...
- 2-3.8: Average Global Temperatures The average global temperatures for the...
- 2-3.9: Carbon Dioxide Concentrations The following data for the atmospheri...
- 2-3.10: Reasons We Travel The following data are based on a survey from Ame...
- 2-3.11: Characteristics of the Population 65 and Over Two characteristics o...
- 2-3.12: Colors of Automobiles The popular vehicle car colors are shown. Con...
- 2-3.13: Workers Switch Jobs In a recent survey, 3 in 10 people indicated th...
- 2-3.14: State which graph (Pareto chart, time series graph, or pie graph) w...
- 2-3.15: Presidents Ages at Inauguration The age at inauguration for each U....
- 2-3.16: Calories in Salad Dressings A listing of calories per one ounce of ...
- 2-3.17: Twenty Days of Plant Growth The growth (in centimeters) of two vari...
- 2-3.18: Math and Reading Achievement Scores The math and reading achievemen...
- 2-3.19: The sales of recorded music in 2004 by genre are listed below. Repr...
- 2-3.20: Successful Space Launches The number of successful space launches b...
- 2-3.21: Meat Production Meat production for veal and lamb for the years 196...
- 2-3.22: Top 10 Airlines During a recent year the top 10 airlines with the m...
- 2-3.23: Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine The top prize-winning countr...
- 2-3.24: Cost of Milk The graph shows the increase in the price of a quart o...
- 2-3.25: Boom in Number of Births The graph shows the projected boom (in mil...
Solutions for Chapter 2-3: Other Types of Graphs
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach 8th ed. | 8th Edition
`-error (or `-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true (also called a type I error).
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
A method of decomposing the total variability in a set of observations, as measured by the sum of the squares of these observations from their average, into component sums of squares that are associated with speciic deined sources of variation
The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average
Asymptotic relative eficiency (ARE)
Used to compare hypothesis tests. The ARE of one test relative to another is the limiting ratio of the sample sizes necessary to obtain identical error probabilities for the two procedures.
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defects-per-unit or U chart.
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made
A parameter in a tabular CUSUM algorithm that is determined from a trade-off between false alarms and the detection of assignable causes.
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.
A subset of effects in a fractional factorial design that deine the aliases in the design.
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
Discrete uniform random variable
A discrete random variable with a inite range and constant probability mass function.
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
Error of estimation
The difference between an estimated value and the true value.
A property of a collection of events that indicates that their union equals the sample space.
Any test of signiicance involving the F distribution. The most common F-tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variances or standard deviations of two independent normal distributions, (2) testing hypotheses about treatment means or variance components in the analysis of variance, and (3) testing signiicance of regression or tests on subsets of parameters in a regression model.
Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.