- 3-3.1: What is a z score? A z score tells how many standard deviations the...
- 3-3.2: Define percentile rank. A percentile rank indicates the percentage ...
- 3-3.3: What is the difference between a percentage and a percentile? A per...
- 3-3.4: Define quartile. A quartile is a relative measure of position obtai...
- 3-3.5: What is the relationship between quartiles and percentiles? Q1 _ P2...
- 3-3.6: What is a decile? A decile is a relative measure of position obtain...
- 3-3.7: How are deciles related to percentiles? D1 _ P10; D2 _ P20; D3 _ P3...
- 3-3.8: To which percentile, quartile, and decile does the median correspon...
- 3-3.9: Vacation Days If the average number of vacation days for a selectio...
- 3-3.10: Age of Senators The average age of Senators in the 108th Congress w...
- 3-3.11: Drivers License Exam Scores The average score on a state CDL licens...
- 3-3.12: Teachers Salary The average teachers salary in a particular state i...
- 3-3.13: Which has a better relative position: a score of 75 on a statistics...
- 3-3.14: College and University Debt A student graduated from a 4-year colle...
- 3-3.15: Which score indicates the highest relative position? a. A score of ...
- 3-3.16: College Room and Board Costs Room and board costs for selected scho...
- 3-3.17: Using the data in Exercise 16, find the approximate percentile rank...
- 3-3.18: Achievement Test Scores (ans) The data shown represent the scores o...
- 3-3.19: For the data in Exercise 18, find the approximate scores that corre...
- 3-3.20: Airplane Speeds (ans) The airborne speeds in miles per hour of 21 p...
- 3-3.21: Using the data in Exercise 20, find the approximate percentile rank...
- 3-3.22: Average Weekly Earnings The average weekly earnings in dollars for ...
- 3-3.23: For the data from Exercise 22, what value corresponds to the 40th p...
- 3-3.24: Test Scores Find the percentile rank for each test score in the dat...
- 3-3.25: In Exercise 24, what value corresponds to the 60th percentile? 47
- 3-3.26: Hurricane Damage Find the percentile rank for each value in the dat...
- 3-3.27: What value in Exercise 26 corresponds to the 40th percentile? 2.1
- 3-3.28: Test Scores Find the percentile rank for each test score in the dat...
- 3-3.29: What test score in Exercise 28 corresponds to the 33rd percentile? 12
- 3-3.30: Using the procedure shown in Example 337, check each data set for o...
- 3-3.31: Another measure of average is called the midquartile; it is the num...
Solutions for Chapter 3-3: Measures of Position
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach 8th ed. | 8th Edition
2 k p - factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each
In hypothesis testing, a region in the sample space of the test statistic such that if the test statistic falls within it, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This terminology is used because rejection of H0 is always a strong conclusion and acceptance of H0 is generally a weak conclusion
In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.
An effect that systematically distorts a statistical result or estimate, preventing it from representing the true quantity of interest.
Binomial random variable
A discrete random variable that equals the number of successes in a ixed number of Bernoulli trials.
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
Conditional probability distribution
The distribution of a random variable given that the random experiment produces an outcome in an event. The given event might specify values for one or more other random variables
Conditional probability mass function
The probability mass function of the conditional probability distribution of a discrete random variable.
The variance of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.
Continuous uniform random variable
A continuous random variable with range of a inite interval and a constant probability density function.
Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.
Deming’s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality
Error mean square
The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
Extra sum of squares method
A method used in regression analysis to conduct a hypothesis test for the additional contribution of one or more variables to a model.
Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.
Gamma random variable
A random variable that generalizes an Erlang random variable to noninteger values of the parameter r
A function that is used to determine properties of the probability distribution of a random variable. See Moment-generating function
Goodness of fit
In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.