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# Solutions for Chapter 9-4: Testing the Difference Between Proportions

## Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach 8th ed. | 8th Edition

ISBN: 9780073386102

Solutions for Chapter 9-4: Testing the Difference Between Proportions

Solutions for Chapter 9-4
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##### ISBN: 9780073386102

Chapter 9-4: Testing the Difference Between Proportions includes 21 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach 8th ed., edition: 8. Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach 8th ed. was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073386102. Since 21 problems in chapter 9-4: Testing the Difference Between Proportions have been answered, more than 34493 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• `-error (or `-risk)

In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true (also called a type I error).

• a-error (or a-risk)

In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).

• Analytic study

A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to a future population. Stability needs to be assumed. See Enumerative study

• Attribute

A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.

• Average

See Arithmetic mean.

• Bayesâ€™ theorem

An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B ( | ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A ( | ).

• Biased estimator

Unbiased estimator.

• Chi-square (or chi-squared) random variable

A continuous random variable that results from the sum of squares of independent standard normal random variables. It is a special case of a gamma random variable.

• Combination.

A subset selected without replacement from a set used to determine the number of outcomes in events and sample spaces.

• Comparative experiment

An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.

• Conditional probability mass function

The probability mass function of the conditional probability distribution of a discrete random variable.

• Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)

A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t

• Degrees of freedom.

The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.

• Design matrix

A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.

• Distribution free method(s)

Any method of inference (hypothesis testing or conidence interval construction) that does not depend on the form of the underlying distribution of the observations. Sometimes called nonparametric method(s).

• Error of estimation

The difference between an estimated value and the true value.

• Estimator (or point estimator)

A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.

• F-test

Any test of signiicance involving the F distribution. The most common F-tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variances or standard deviations of two independent normal distributions, (2) testing hypotheses about treatment means or variance components in the analysis of variance, and (3) testing signiicance of regression or tests on subsets of parameters in a regression model.

• First-order model

A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model

• Goodness of fit

In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.

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