- 11-1.1: How does the goodness-of-fit test differ from the chi-square varian...
- 11-1.2: How are the degrees of freedom computed for the goodness-of-fit tes...
- 11-1.3: How are the expected values computed for the goodness-of-fit test?
- 11-1.4: When the expected frequencies are less than 5 for a specific class,...
- 11-1.5: Home-Schooled Student Activities Students who are home-schooled oft...
- 11-1.6: Combatting Midday Drowsiness A researcher wishes to see if the five...
- 11-1.7: Music Sales In a recent year, 77.8% of recorded music sales were fu...
- 11-1.8: On-Time Performance by Airlines According to the Bureau of Transpor...
- 11-1.9: Genetically Modified Food AnABC News poll asked adults whether they...
- 11-1.10: Truck Colors In a recent year, the most popular colors for light tr...
- 11-1.11: Assessment of Mathematics Students As part of the Mathematics Asses...
- 11-1.12: Ages of Head Start Program Students The Head Start Program provides...
- 11-1.13: Payment Preference AUSA TODAY Snapshot states that 53% of adult sho...
- 11-1.14: College Degree Recipients A survey of 800 recent degree recipients ...
- 11-1.15: Internet Users A survey was targeted at determining if educational ...
- 11-1.16: Education Level and Health Insurance A researcher wishes to see if ...
- 11-1.17: Paying for Prescriptions Amedical researcher wishes to determine if...
- 11-1.18: Tossing Coins Three coins are tossed 72 times, and the number of he...
- 11-1.19: State Lottery Numbers Select a three-digit state lottery number ove...
Solutions for Chapter 11-1: Test for Goodness of Fit
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach 8th ed. | 8th Edition
In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.
All possible (subsets) regressions
A method of variable selection in regression that examines all possible subsets of the candidate regressor variables. Eficient computer algorithms have been developed for implementing all possible regressions
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.
Continuous uniform random variable
A continuous random variable with range of a inite interval and a constant probability density function.
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.
A square matrix that contains the variances and covariances among a set of random variables, say, X1 , X X 2 k , , … . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are the variances of the random variables and the off-diagonal elements are the covariances between Xi and Xj . Also called the variance-covariance matrix. When the random variables are standardized to have unit variances, the covariance matrix becomes the correlation matrix.
In hypothesis testing, this is the portion of the sample space of a test statistic that will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.
Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.
Deming’s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
Erlang random variable
A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.
Error of estimation
The difference between an estimated value and the true value.
Estimator (or point estimator)
A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.
Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.
Fraction defective control chart
See P chart
A function used in the probability density function of a gamma random variable that can be considered to extend factorials