- 1-3.1: What type of survey did you use (phone, mail, or interview)?
- 1-3.2: What are the advantages and disadvantages of the surveying methods ...
- 1-3.3: What type of scores did you use? Why?
- 1-3.4: Did you use a random method for deciding who would be in your sample?
- 1-3.5: Which of the methods (stratified, systematic, cluster, or convenien...
- 1-3.6: Why was that method more appropriate for this type of data collection?
- 1-3.7: If a convenience sample were obtained, consisting of only adolescen...
Solutions for Chapter 1-3: The Nature of Probability and Statistics
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach | 7th Edition
2 k factorial experiment.
A full factorial experiment with k factors and all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each.
2 k p - factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each
a-error (or a-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).
Asymptotic relative eficiency (ARE)
Used to compare hypothesis tests. The ARE of one test relative to another is the limiting ratio of the sample sizes necessary to obtain identical error probabilities for the two procedures.
An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
A chart used to organize the various potential causes of a problem. Also called a ishbone diagram.
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
Central composite design (CCD)
A second-order response surface design in k variables consisting of a two-level factorial, 2k axial runs, and one or more center points. The two-level factorial portion of a CCD can be a fractional factorial design when k is large. The CCD is the most widely used design for itting a second-order model.
A subset selected without replacement from a set used to determine the number of outcomes in events and sample spaces.
If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made
Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.
See Control chart.
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the off-diagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .
Formulas used to determine the number of elements in sample spaces and events.
Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.
Discrete random variable
A random variable with a inite (or countably ininite) range.
Error of estimation
The difference between an estimated value and the true value.
Any test of signiicance involving the F distribution. The most common F-tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variances or standard deviations of two independent normal distributions, (2) testing hypotheses about treatment means or variance components in the analysis of variance, and (3) testing signiicance of regression or tests on subsets of parameters in a regression model.
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model