- 1-3.1: What type of survey did you use (phone, mail, or interview)?
- 1-3.2: What are the advantages and disadvantages of the surveying methods ...
- 1-3.3: What type of scores did you use? Why?
- 1-3.4: Did you use a random method for deciding who would be in your sample?
- 1-3.5: Which of the methods (stratified, systematic, cluster, or convenien...
- 1-3.6: Why was that method more appropriate for this type of data collection?
- 1-3.7: If a convenience sample were obtained, consisting of only adolescen...
Solutions for Chapter 1-3: The Nature of Probability and Statistics
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach | 7th Edition
`-error (or `-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true (also called a type I error).
An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B ( | ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A ( | ).
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.
Any test of signiicance based on the chi-square distribution. The most common chi-square tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data
Conditional probability mass function
The probability mass function of the conditional probability distribution of a discrete random variable.
A linear function of treatment means with coeficients that total zero. A contrast is a summary of treatment means that is of interest in an experiment.
A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the in-control value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be in-control, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an out-of-control process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.
In the most general usage, a measure of the interdependence among data. The concept may include more than two variables. The term is most commonly used in a narrow sense to express the relationship between quantitative variables or ranks.
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.
Distribution free method(s)
Any method of inference (hypothesis testing or conidence interval construction) that does not depend on the form of the underlying distribution of the observations. Sometimes called nonparametric method(s).
Another name for a cumulative distribution function.
A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.
A property of a collection of events that indicates that their union equals the sample space.
The expected value of a random variable X is its long-term average or mean value. In the continuous case, the expected value of X is E X xf x dx ( ) = ?? ( ) ? ? where f ( ) x is the density function of the random variable X.
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.
Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.
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