- 2-3.1: What are the variables in the graph?
- 2-3.2: Are the variables qualitative or quantitative?
- 2-3.3: Are the variables discrete or continuous?
- 2-3.4: What type of graph was used to display the data?
- 2-3.5: Could a Pareto chart be used to display the data?
- 2-3.6: Could a pie chart be used to display the data?
- 2-3.7: List some typical uses for the Pareto chart
- 2-3.8: List some typical uses for the time series chart.
- 2-3.1: Womens Softball Champions The NCAA Womens Softball Division 1 Champ...
- 2-3.2: Delegates Who Signed the Declaration of Independence The state repr...
- 2-3.3: Internet Connections The following data represent the estimated num...
- 2-3.4: Roller Coaster Mania The World Roller Coaster Census Report lists t...
- 2-3.5: World Energy Use The following percentages indicate the source of e...
- 2-3.6: Airline Departures Draw a time series graph to represent the data f...
- 2-3.7: Average Global Temperatures Represent these average global temperat...
- 2-3.8: Nuclear Power Reactors Draw a time series graph for the data shown ...
- 2-3.9: Percentage of Voters in Presidential Elections Listed are the perce...
- 2-3.10: Reasons We Travel The following data are based on a survey from Ame...
- 2-3.11: Characteristics of the Population 65 and Over Two characteristics o...
- 2-3.12: Components of the Earths Crust The following elements comprise the ...
- 2-3.13: Workers Switch Jobs In a recent survey, 3 in 10 people indicated th...
- 2-3.14: State which graph (Pareto chart, time series graph, or pie graph) w...
- 2-3.15: PresidentsAges at Inauguration The age at inauguration for each U.S...
- 2-3.16: Calories in Salad Dressings A listing of calories per one ounce of ...
- 2-3.17: Twenty Days of Plant Growth The growth (in centimeters) of two vari...
- 2-3.18: Math and Reading Achievement Scores The math and reading achievemen...
- 2-3.19: The sales of recorded music in 2004 by genre are listed below. Repr...
- 2-3.20: Successful Space Launches The number of successful space launches b...
- 2-3.21: Meat Production Meat production for veal and lamb for the years 196...
- 2-3.22: Top 10 Airlines The top 10 airlines with the most aircraft are list...
- 2-3.23: Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine The top prize-winning countr...
- 2-3.24: Cost of Milk The graph shows the increase in the price of a quart o...
- 2-3.25: Boom in Number of Births The graph shows the projected boom (in mil...
Solutions for Chapter 2-3: Frequency Distributions and Graphs
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach | 7th Edition
Additivity property of x 2
If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chi-square with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chi-square random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chi-square random variables.
The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average
Bivariate normal distribution
The joint distribution of two normal random variables
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
Any test of signiicance based on the chi-square distribution. The most common chi-square tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data
A subset selected without replacement from a set used to determine the number of outcomes in events and sample spaces.
The probability 1?a associated with a conidence interval expressing the probability that the stated interval will contain the true parameter value.
A two-dimensional graphic used for a bivariate probability density function that displays curves for which the probability density function is constant.
See Control chart.
In the most general usage, a measure of the interdependence among data. The concept may include more than two variables. The term is most commonly used in a narrow sense to express the relationship between quantitative variables or ranks.
A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).
Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.
Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
An analysis of how the variance of the random variable that represents that output of a system depends on the variances of the inputs. A formula exists when the output is a linear function of the inputs and the formula is simpliied if the inputs are assumed to be independent.
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study
Fraction defective control chart
See P chart
Goodness of fit
In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.