- 3-4.1: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.2: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.3: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.4: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.5: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.6: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.7: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.8: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.9: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.10: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.11: Earned Run AverageNumber of Games Pitched Construct a boxplot for t...
- 3-4.12: Innings Pitched Construct a boxplot for the following data which re...
- 3-4.13: State Sites for Frogwatch Construct a boxplot for these numbers of ...
- 3-4.14: Median Household Incomes Construct a boxplot and comment on the ske...
- 3-4.15: Tornadoes in 2005 Construct a boxplot and comment on its skewness f...
- 3-4.16: Size of Dams These data represent the volumes in cubic yards of the...
- 3-4.17: Number of Tornadoes A four-month record for the number of tornadoes...
- 3-4.18: Unhealthful Smog Days A modified boxplot can be drawn by placing a ...
Solutions for Chapter 3-4: Data Description
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach | 7th Edition
2 k factorial experiment.
A full factorial experiment with k factors and all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each.
Additivity property of x 2
If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chi-square with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chi-square random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chi-square random variables.
In statistical hypothesis testing, this is a hypothesis other than the one that is being tested. The alternative hypothesis contains feasible conditions, whereas the null hypothesis speciies conditions that are under test
Axioms of probability
A set of rules that probabilities deined on a sample space must follow. See Probability
Binomial random variable
A discrete random variable that equals the number of successes in a ixed number of Bernoulli trials.
When y fx = ( ) and y is considered to be caused by x, x is sometimes called a causal variable
Any test of signiicance based on the chi-square distribution. The most common chi-square tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data
Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.
A correction factor used to improve the approximation to binomial probabilities from a normal distribution.
A measure of association between two random variables obtained as the expected value of the product of the two random variables around their means; that is, Cov(X Y, ) [( )( )] =? ? E X Y ? ? X Y .
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t
An expression sometimes used for nonlinear regression models or polynomial regression models.
Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.
Defects-per-unit control chart
See U chart
Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
An analysis of how the variance of the random variable that represents that output of a system depends on the variances of the inputs. A formula exists when the output is a linear function of the inputs and the formula is simpliied if the inputs are assumed to be independent.
Estimate (or point estimate)
The numerical value of a point estimator.
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model