- 3-4.1: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.2: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.3: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.4: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.5: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.6: For Exercises 16, identify the five-number summary and find the int...
- 3-4.7: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.8: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.9: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.10: For Exercises 710, use each boxplot to identify the maximum value, ...
- 3-4.11: Earned Run AverageNumber of Games Pitched Construct a boxplot for t...
- 3-4.12: Innings Pitched Construct a boxplot for the following data which re...
- 3-4.13: State Sites for Frogwatch Construct a boxplot for these numbers of ...
- 3-4.14: Median Household Incomes Construct a boxplot and comment on the ske...
- 3-4.15: Tornadoes in 2005 Construct a boxplot and comment on its skewness f...
- 3-4.16: Size of Dams These data represent the volumes in cubic yards of the...
- 3-4.17: Number of Tornadoes A four-month record for the number of tornadoes...
- 3-4.18: Unhealthful Smog Days A modified boxplot can be drawn by placing a ...
Solutions for Chapter 3-4: Data Description
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach | 7th Edition
a-error (or a-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).
The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that can be traced to speciic causes, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a special cause.
Average run length, or ARL
The average number of samples taken in a process monitoring or inspection scheme until the scheme signals that the process is operating at a level different from the level in which it began.
Axioms of probability
A set of rules that probabilities deined on a sample space must follow. See Probability
Sequences of independent trials with only two outcomes, generally called “success” and “failure,” in which the probability of success remains constant.
Binomial random variable
A discrete random variable that equals the number of successes in a ixed number of Bernoulli trials.
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
Components of variance
The individual components of the total variance that are attributable to speciic sources. This usually refers to the individual variance components arising from a random or mixed model analysis of variance.
The probability of an event given that the random experiment produces an outcome in another event.
A tabular arrangement expressing the assignment of members of a data set according to two or more categories or classiication criteria
A linear function of treatment means with coeficients that total zero. A contrast is a summary of treatment means that is of interest in an experiment.
See Control chart.
A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the off-diagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.
A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.
Erlang random variable
A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.
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