 81.1: What prompted the study?
 81.2: What is the population under study?
 81.3: Was a sample collected?
 81.4: What was the hypothesis?
 81.5: Were data collected?
 81.6: Were any statistical tests run?
 81.7: What was the conclusion?
 81.8: Explain what is meant by a significant difference
 81.9: When should a onetailed test be used? A twotailed test?
 81.10: List the steps in hypothesis testing.
 81.11: In hypothesis testing, why cant the hypothesis be proved true?
 81.12: Using the z table (Table E), find the critical value (or values) fo...
 81.13: For each conjecture, state the null and alternative hypotheses. a. ...
Solutions for Chapter 81: Hypothesis Testing
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach  7th Edition
ISBN: 9780073534978
Solutions for Chapter 81: Hypothesis Testing
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Biased estimator
Unbiased estimator.

Bivariate normal distribution
The joint distribution of two normal random variables

Coeficient of determination
See R 2 .

Conditional probability mass function
The probability mass function of the conditional probability distribution of a discrete random variable.

Continuity correction.
A correction factor used to improve the approximation to binomial probabilities from a normal distribution.

Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.

Continuous uniform random variable
A continuous random variable with range of a inite interval and a constant probability density function.

Convolution
A method to derive the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables from an integral (or sum) of probability density (or mass) functions.

Defectsperunit control chart
See U chart

Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.

Design matrix
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.

Discrete distribution
A probability distribution for a discrete random variable

Distribution function
Another name for a cumulative distribution function.

F distribution.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chisquare random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pairwise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.

Forward selection
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.

Fraction defective control chart
See P chart

Generator
Effects in a fractional factorial experiment that are used to construct the experimental tests used in the experiment. The generators also deine the aliases.

Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.

Hat matrix.
In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? 1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .