 134.1: What is the purpose of the study?
 134.2: Are the samples independent or dependent?
 134.3: What are the hypotheses?
 134.4: What nonparametric test could be used to test the claim?
 134.5: What significance level would you use?
 134.6: What is your decision?
 134.7: What parametric test could you use?
 134.8: Would the results be the same?
 134.1: What is the parametric equivalent test for the Wilcoxon signedrank...
 134.2: For Exercises 2 and 3, find the sum of the signed ranks. Assume tha...
 134.3: For Exercises 2 and 3, find the sum of the signed ranks. Assume tha...
 134.4: For Exercises 4 through 8, use Table K to determine whether the nul...
 134.5: For Exercises 4 through 8, use Table K to determine whether the nul...
 134.6: For Exercises 4 through 8, use Table K to determine whether the nul...
 134.7: For Exercises 4 through 8, use Table K to determine whether the nul...
 134.8: For Exercises 4 through 8, use Table K to determine whether the nul...
 134.9: Drug Prices Eight drugs were selected, and the prices for the human...
 134.10: Salaries of Men and Women Workers In a corporation, female and male...
 134.11: Memorization Quiz Scores Nine students were selected to participate...
 134.12: Legal Costs for School Districts A sample of legal costs (in thousa...
 134.13: Drug Prices A researcher wishes to compare the prices for prescript...
Solutions for Chapter 134: Nonparametric Statistics
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach  7th Edition
ISBN: 9780073534978
Solutions for Chapter 134: Nonparametric Statistics
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Addition rule
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).

Bayes’ theorem
An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B (  ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A (  ).

Bivariate distribution
The joint probability distribution of two random variables.

Chance cause
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.

Coeficient of determination
See R 2 .

Combination.
A subset selected without replacement from a set used to determine the number of outcomes in events and sample spaces.

Conditional probability
The probability of an event given that the random experiment produces an outcome in another event.

Conditional probability mass function
The probability mass function of the conditional probability distribution of a discrete random variable.

Continuous distribution
A probability distribution for a continuous random variable.

Control chart
A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the incontrol value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be incontrol, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an outofcontrol process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.

Critical value(s)
The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

Cumulative normal distribution function
The cumulative distribution of the standard normal distribution, often denoted as ?( ) x and tabulated in Appendix Table II.

Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t

Deming
W. Edwards Deming (1900–1993) was a leader in the use of statistical quality control.

Deming’s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality

Discrete random variable
A random variable with a inite (or countably ininite) range.

Estimator (or point estimator)
A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.

F distribution.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chisquare random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

Factorial experiment
A type of experimental design in which every level of one factor is tested in combination with every level of another factor. In general, in a factorial experiment, all possible combinations of factor levels are tested.

Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.