 3.4.1: The failure rate of a certain component is h(t) = 0t, where 0 > 0 i...
 3.4.2: The failure rate of a computer system for onboard control of a spac...
Solutions for Chapter 3.4: Some Important Distributions
Full solutions for Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications  2nd Edition
ISBN: 9781119285427
Solutions for Chapter 3.4: Some Important Distributions
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2 k factorial experiment.
A full factorial experiment with k factors and all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each.

Bimodal distribution.
A distribution with two modes

Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).

Chance cause
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.

Chisquare test
Any test of signiicance based on the chisquare distribution. The most common chisquare tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data

Conditional probability
The probability of an event given that the random experiment produces an outcome in another event.

Conditional probability density function
The probability density function of the conditional probability distribution of a continuous random variable.

Conditional probability distribution
The distribution of a random variable given that the random experiment produces an outcome in an event. The given event might specify values for one or more other random variables

Conidence interval
If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made

Correlation coeficient
A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).

Critical region
In hypothesis testing, this is the portion of the sample space of a test statistic that will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.

Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.

Estimator (or point estimator)
A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.

Experiment
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

F distribution.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chisquare random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

Firstorder model
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irstorder response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irstorder model is also called a main effects model

Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.

Forward selection
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.

Gamma random variable
A random variable that generalizes an Erlang random variable to noninteger values of the parameter r

Geometric mean.
The geometric mean of a set of n positive data values is the nth root of the product of the data values; that is, g x i n i n = ( ) = / w 1 1 .