- 5.4.1: We are given a system with three components. Whenever a component i...
- 5.4.2: Starting from formula (5.47), use the moment generating property of...
Solutions for Chapter 5.4: Imperfect Fault Coverage And Reliability
Full solutions for Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications | 2nd Edition
Asymptotic relative eficiency (ARE)
Used to compare hypothesis tests. The ARE of one test relative to another is the limiting ratio of the sample sizes necessary to obtain identical error probabilities for the two procedures.
Attribute control chart
Any control chart for a discrete random variable. See Variables control chart.
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defects-per-unit or U chart.
Central composite design (CCD)
A second-order response surface design in k variables consisting of a two-level factorial, 2k axial runs, and one or more center points. The two-level factorial portion of a CCD can be a fractional factorial design when k is large. The CCD is the most widely used design for itting a second-order model.
Any test of signiicance based on the chi-square distribution. The most common chi-square tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data
Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.
The mean of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.
Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.
A method to derive the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables from an integral (or sum) of probability density (or mass) functions.
In the most general usage, a measure of the interdependence among data. The concept may include more than two variables. The term is most commonly used in a narrow sense to express the relationship between quantitative variables or ranks.
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the off-diagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.
Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.
Discrete random variable
A random variable with a inite (or countably ininite) range.
Erlang random variable
A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.
Error mean square
The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
Estimator (or point estimator)
A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.
The expected value of a random variable X is its long-term average or mean value. In the continuous case, the expected value of X is E X xf x dx ( ) = ?? ( ) ? ? where f ( ) x is the density function of the random variable X.
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study