- 7.3.1: Consider a system with two components [ASH 1970]. We observe the st...
- 7.3.2: Assume that a computer system is in one of three states: busy, idle...
- 7.3.3: Any transition probability matrix P is a stochastic matrix; that is...
- 7.3.4: Show that the Markov chain of Example 7.12 is irreducible and aperi...
Solutions for Chapter 7.3: State Classification And Limiting Probabilitites
Full solutions for Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications | 2nd Edition
In hypothesis testing, a region in the sample space of the test statistic such that if the test statistic falls within it, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This terminology is used because rejection of H0 is always a strong conclusion and acceptance of H0 is generally a weak conclusion
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to a future population. Stability needs to be assumed. See Enumerative study
Asymptotic relative eficiency (ARE)
Used to compare hypothesis tests. The ARE of one test relative to another is the limiting ratio of the sample sizes necessary to obtain identical error probabilities for the two procedures.
See Arithmetic mean.
Chi-square (or chi-squared) random variable
A continuous random variable that results from the sum of squares of independent standard normal random variables. It is a special case of a gamma random variable.
Any test of signiicance based on the chi-square distribution. The most common chi-square tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data
Components of variance
The individual components of the total variance that are attributable to speciic sources. This usually refers to the individual variance components arising from a random or mixed model analysis of variance.
A probability distribution for a continuous random variable.
A linear function of treatment means with coeficients that total zero. A contrast is a summary of treatment means that is of interest in an experiment.
A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .
Cumulative normal distribution function
The cumulative distribution of the standard normal distribution, often denoted as ?( ) x and tabulated in Appendix Table II.
A subset of effects in a fractional factorial design that deine the aliases in the design.
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.
A subset of a sample space.
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study
Extra sum of squares method
A method used in regression analysis to conduct a hypothesis test for the additional contribution of one or more variables to a model.
Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.
Gamma random variable
A random variable that generalizes an Erlang random variable to noninteger values of the parameter r
Another name for the normal distribution, based on the strong connection of Karl F. Gauss to the normal distribution; often used in physics and electrical engineering applications
Goodness of fit
In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.