- 7.9.1: Refer to Knuth [KNUT 1997]. Given the stochastic program flow graph...
- 7.9.2: Reconsider Example 7.16 and assume that an overflow forces the prog...
Solutions for Chapter 7.9: Finite Markov Chains With Absorbing States
Full solutions for Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications | 2nd Edition
Additivity property of x 2
If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chi-square with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chi-square random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chi-square random variables.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
A method of decomposing the total variability in a set of observations, as measured by the sum of the squares of these observations from their average, into component sums of squares that are associated with speciic deined sources of variation
An effect that systematically distorts a statistical result or estimate, preventing it from representing the true quantity of interest.
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.
Coeficient of determination
See R 2 .
The probability 1?a associated with a conidence interval expressing the probability that the stated interval will contain the true parameter value.
A probability distribution for a continuous random variable.
A method to derive the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables from an integral (or sum) of probability density (or mass) functions.
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.
A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .
A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).
Deming’s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.
Discrete random variable
A random variable with a inite (or countably ininite) range.
Error sum of squares
In analysis of variance, this is the portion of total variability that is due to the random component in the data. It is usually based on replication of observations at certain treatment combinations in the experiment. It is sometimes called the residual sum of squares, although this is really a better term to use only when the sum of squares is based on the remnants of a model-itting process and not on replication.
The expected value of a random variable X is its long-term average or mean value. In the continuous case, the expected value of X is E X xf x dx ( ) = ?? ( ) ? ? where f ( ) x is the density function of the random variable X.
Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.
Goodness of fit
In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.
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