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# Solutions for Chapter 11-7: PREDICTION OF NEW OBSERVATIONS

## Full solutions for Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers | 3rd Edition

ISBN: 9780471204541

Solutions for Chapter 11-7: PREDICTION OF NEW OBSERVATIONS

Solutions for Chapter 11-7
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##### ISBN: 9780471204541

Chapter 11-7: PREDICTION OF NEW OBSERVATIONS includes 11 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers , edition: 3. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780471204541. Since 11 problems in chapter 11-7: PREDICTION OF NEW OBSERVATIONS have been answered, more than 19717 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• a-error (or a-risk)

In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).

• Bimodal distribution.

A distribution with two modes

• Bivariate distribution

The joint probability distribution of two random variables.

• Box plot (or box and whisker plot)

A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).

• C chart

An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defects-per-unit or U chart.

• Chance cause

The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.

• Confounding

When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.

• Conidence interval

If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made

• Continuous distribution

A probability distribution for a continuous random variable.

• Continuous uniform random variable

A continuous random variable with range of a inite interval and a constant probability density function.

• Correlation coeficient

A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).

• Critical value(s)

The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

• Curvilinear regression

An expression sometimes used for nonlinear regression models or polynomial regression models.

• Defects-per-unit control chart

See U chart

• Degrees of freedom.

The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.

• Discrete random variable

A random variable with a inite (or countably ininite) range.

• Discrete uniform random variable

A discrete random variable with a inite range and constant probability mass function.

• F distribution.

The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chi-square random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

• Fisherâ€™s least signiicant difference (LSD) method

A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.

• Fractional factorial experiment

A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.

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