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Get Full Access to Statistics - Textbook Survival Guide
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# Solutions for Chapter 2.5: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists 4th Edition

## Full solutions for Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

ISBN: 9780073401331

Solutions for Chapter 2.5

Solutions for Chapter 2.5
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##### ISBN: 9780073401331

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists , edition: 4. Statistics for Engineers and Scientists was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073401331. Since 18 problems in chapter 2.5 have been answered, more than 262964 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 2.5 includes 18 full step-by-step solutions.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook

A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).

• Additivity property of x 2

If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chi-square with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chi-square random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chi-square random variables.

• Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

A method of decomposing the total variability in a set of observations, as measured by the sum of the squares of these observations from their average, into component sums of squares that are associated with speciic deined sources of variation

• Arithmetic mean

The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average

• Attribute

A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.

• Backward elimination

A method of variable selection in regression that begins with all of the candidate regressor variables in the model and eliminates the insigniicant regressors one at a time until only signiicant regressors remain

• Bernoulli trials

Sequences of independent trials with only two outcomes, generally called “success” and “failure,” in which the probability of success remains constant.

• C chart

An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defects-per-unit or U chart.

• Center line

A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.

• Conditional mean

The mean of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.

• Conidence interval

If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made

• Curvilinear regression

An expression sometimes used for nonlinear regression models or polynomial regression models.

• Discrete distribution

A probability distribution for a discrete random variable

• Distribution function

Another name for a cumulative distribution function.

• Empirical model

A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.

• Experiment

A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

• First-order model

A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model

• Fractional factorial experiment

A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.

• Geometric mean.

The geometric mean of a set of n positive data values is the nth root of the product of the data values; that is, g x i n i n = ( ) = / w 1 1 .

• Hat matrix.

In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? -1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .

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