- Introduction.1: Protecting wood How can we help wood surfaces resist weathering, es...
- Introduction.2: Medical study variables Data from a medical study contain values of...
- Introduction.3: A class survey Here is a small part of the data set that describes ...
- Introduction.4: Coaster craze Many people like to ride roller coasters. Amusement p...
- Introduction.5: Ranking colleges Popular magazines rank colleges and universities o...
- Introduction.6: Students and TV You are preparing to study the television-viewing h...
- Introduction.7: Multiple choice: Select the best answer. Exercises 7 and 8 refer to...
- Introduction.8: Multiple choice: Select the best answer. Exercises 7 and 8 refer to...
Solutions for Chapter Introduction: Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data
Full solutions for The Practice of Statistics | 5th Edition
2 k p - factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each
Attribute control chart
Any control chart for a discrete random variable. See Variables control chart.
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.
A probability distribution for a continuous random variable.
In the most general usage, a measure of the interdependence among data. The concept may include more than two variables. The term is most commonly used in a narrow sense to express the relationship between quantitative variables or ranks.
In hypothesis testing, this is the portion of the sample space of a test statistic that will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.
Deming’s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality
Error mean square
The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
The variance of an error term or component in a model.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chi-square random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model
Fraction defective control chart
See P chart
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on
A function that is used to determine properties of the probability distribution of a random variable. See Moment-generating function
Goodness of fit
In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.
The harmonic mean of a set of data values is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the data values; that is, h n x i n i = ? ? ? ? ? = ? ? 1 1 1 1 g .
In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? -1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .