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Solutions for Chapter 15.4: Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers 6th Edition
Full solutions for Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers | 6th Edition
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.
Average run length, or ARL
The average number of samples taken in a process monitoring or inspection scheme until the scheme signals that the process is operating at a level different from the level in which it began.
An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.
Binomial random variable
A discrete random variable that equals the number of successes in a ixed number of Bernoulli trials.
Bivariate normal distribution
The joint distribution of two normal random variables
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.
Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.
A correction factor used to improve the approximation to binomial probabilities from a normal distribution.
Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.
A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .
Discrete random variable
A random variable with a inite (or countably ininite) range.
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
Error sum of squares
In analysis of variance, this is the portion of total variability that is due to the random component in the data. It is usually based on replication of observations at certain treatment combinations in the experiment. It is sometimes called the residual sum of squares, although this is really a better term to use only when the sum of squares is based on the remnants of a model-itting process and not on replication.
The variance of an error term or component in a model.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chi-square random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on