 1.3.1E: What is the difference between an observational study and an experi...
 1.3.1: What is the difference between an observational study and an experi...
 1.3.2E: What is the difference between a census and a sampling?
 1.3.2: What is the difference between a census and a sampling?
 1.3.3E: What is the difference between a random sample and a simple random ...
 1.3.3: What is the difference between a random sample and a simple random ...
 1.3.4E: What is replication in an experiment? Why is replication important?
 1.3.4: What is replication in an experiment? Why is replication important?
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 1.3.5: True or False? In Exercises 510, determine whether the statement is...
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 1.3.6: True or False? In Exercises 510, determine whether the statement is...
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 1.3.7: True or False? In Exercises 510, determine whether the statement is...
 1.3.8E: True or False? In Exercise, determine whether the statement is true...
 1.3.8: True or False? In Exercises 510, determine whether the statement is...
 1.3.9E: True or False? In Exercise, determine whether the statement is true...
 1.3.9: True or False? In Exercises 510, determine whether the statement is...
 1.3.10E: True or False? In Exercise, determine whether the statement is true...
 1.3.10: True or False? In Exercises 510, determine whether the statement is...
 1.3.11E: Observational Study or Experiment? In Exercise, determine whether t...
 1.3.11: Observational Study or Experiment? In Exercises 1114, determinewhet...
 1.3.12: Observational Study or Experiment? In Exercises 1114, determinewhet...
 1.3.12E: Observational Study or Experiment? In Exercise, determine whether t...
 1.3.13: "Observational Study or Experiment? In Exercises 1114, determinewhe...
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 1.3.14: "Observational Study or Experiment? In Exercises 1114, determinewhe...
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 1.3.15: Allergy Drug A pharmaceutical company wants to test the effectivene...
 1.3.15E: Allergy Drug A pharmaceutical company wants to test the effectivene...
 1.3.16: Shoes A footwear company developed a new type of shoe designed tohe...
 1.3.17E: Random Number Table Use the sixth row of Table to generate 12 rando...
 1.3.17: Random Number Table Use the sixth row of Table 1 in Appendix B toge...
 1.3.18E: Random Number Table Use the tenth row of Table to generate 10 rando...
 1.3.18: Random Number Table Use the tenth row of Table 1 in Appendix B toge...
 1.3.21E: Sleep Deprivation A researcher wants to study the effects of sleep ...
 1.3.19: Random Numbers In Exercises 19 and 20, use technology to generate t...
 1.3.23E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
 1.3.20: "Random Numbers In Exercises 19 and 20, use technology to generate ...
 1.3.24E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
 1.3.21: Sleep Deprivation A researcher wants to study the effects of sleepd...
 1.3.25E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
 1.3.22: Random Number Generation Volunteers for an experiment are numberedf...
 1.3.26E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
 1.3.23: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercises 2330, identify the sam...
 1.3.27E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
 1.3.24: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercises 2330, identify the sam...
 1.3.28E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
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 1.3.29E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
 1.3.26: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercises 2330, identify the sam...
 1.3.30E: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercise, identify the sampling ...
 1.3.27: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercises 2330, identify the sam...
 1.3.31E: Choosing Between a Census and a Sampling In Exercise, determine whe...
 1.3.28: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercises 2330, identify the sam...
 1.3.32E: Choosing Between a Census and a Sampling In Exercise, determine whe...
 1.3.29: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercises 2330, identify the sam...
 1.3.33E: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercise, determine whether the su...
 1.3.30: Identifying Sampling Techniques In Exercises 2330, identify the sam...
 1.3.34E: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercise, determine whether the su...
 1.3.31: Choosing Between a Census and a Sampling In Exercises 31 and 32,det...
 1.3.35E: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercise, determine whether the su...
 1.3.32: Choosing Between a Census and a Sampling In Exercises 31 and 32,det...
 1.3.36E: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercise, determine whether the su...
 1.3.33: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercises 3336, determine whether ...
 1.3.37E: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercise, determine whether the su...
 1.3.34: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercises 3336, determine whether ...
 1.3.38EC: Natural Experiments Observational studies are sometimes referred to...
 1.3.35: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercises 3336, determine whether ...
 1.3.40EC: Who Picked These People? Some polling agencies ask people to call a...
 1.3.36: Recognizing a Biased Question In Exercises 3336, determine whether ...
 1.3.37: Writing A sample of television program ratings by The Nielsen Compa...
 1.3.38: Natural Experiments Observational studies are sometimes referred to...
 1.3.39: Open and Closed Questions Two types of survey questions are openque...
 1.3.40: Who Picked These People? Some polling agencies ask people to calla ...
 1.3.41: Analyzing a Study Find an article that describes a statistical stud...
Solutions for Chapter 1.3: Data Collection and Experimental Design
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World  6th Edition
ISBN: 9780321911216
Solutions for Chapter 1.3: Data Collection and Experimental Design
Get Full SolutionsThis expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 76 problems in chapter 1.3: Data Collection and Experimental Design have been answered, more than 107798 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World , edition: 6. Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321911216. Chapter 1.3: Data Collection and Experimental Design includes 76 full stepbystep solutions.

All possible (subsets) regressions
A method of variable selection in regression that examines all possible subsets of the candidate regressor variables. Eficient computer algorithms have been developed for implementing all possible regressions

Bimodal distribution.
A distribution with two modes

Block
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.

Categorical data
Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.

Chance cause
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.

Combination.
A subset selected without replacement from a set used to determine the number of outcomes in events and sample spaces.

Conidence interval
If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made

Consistent estimator
An estimator that converges in probability to the true value of the estimated parameter as the sample size increases.

Convolution
A method to derive the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables from an integral (or sum) of probability density (or mass) functions.

Correction factor
A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .

Counting techniques
Formulas used to determine the number of elements in sample spaces and events.

Covariance
A measure of association between two random variables obtained as the expected value of the product of the two random variables around their means; that is, Cov(X Y, ) [( )( )] =? ? E X Y ? ? X Y .

Crossed factors
Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

Degrees of freedom.
The number of independent comparisons that can be made among the elements of a sample. The term is analogous to the number of degrees of freedom for an object in a dynamic system, which is the number of independent coordinates required to determine the motion of the object.

Demingâ€™s 14 points.
A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality

Dependent variable
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.

Error sum of squares
In analysis of variance, this is the portion of total variability that is due to the random component in the data. It is usually based on replication of observations at certain treatment combinations in the experiment. It is sometimes called the residual sum of squares, although this is really a better term to use only when the sum of squares is based on the remnants of a modelitting process and not on replication.

Ftest
Any test of signiicance involving the F distribution. The most common Ftests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variances or standard deviations of two independent normal distributions, (2) testing hypotheses about treatment means or variance components in the analysis of variance, and (3) testing signiicance of regression or tests on subsets of parameters in a regression model.

Firstorder model
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irstorder response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irstorder model is also called a main effects model

Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.