 3.1E: Details Here are histograms for four manufactured sets of numbers. ...
 3.2E: Opposites In a way, boxplots are the opposite of histograms. A hist...
 3.3E: Outliers The 5number summary for the run times in minutes of the 1...
 3.4E: Adoptions The following table shows the mean and median ages in yea...
 3.5E: Adoptions II Here is a histogram showing the total number of adopti...
 3.6E: Test score centers After entering the test scores from her Statisti...
 3.7E: Test score spreads The professor in question 6 had also calculated ...
 3.8E: Fuel economy The boxplot shows the fuel economy ratings for 67 mode...
 3.13E: Thinking about shape Would you expect distributions of these variab...
 3.14E: More shapes Would you expect distributions of these variables to be...
 3.15E: Sugar in cereals The histogram displays the sugar content (as a per...
 3.16E: Singers The display shows the heights of some of the singers in a c...
 3.17E: Vineyards The histogram shows the sizes (in acres) of 36 vineyards ...
 3.18E: Run times One of the authors collected the times (in minutes) it to...
 3.19E: Heart attack stays The histogram shows the lengths of hospital stay...
 3.20E: Emails A university teacher saved every email received from stude...
 3.21E: Super Bowl points 2013 How many points do football teams score in t...
 3.22E: Super Bowl wins 2013 In the Super Bowl, by how many points does the...
 3.23E: Summaries Here are costs of nine compact refrigerators rated very g...
 3.24E: Tornadoes 2013 Here are the annual numbers of deaths from tornadoes...
 3.25E: Mistake A clerk entering salary data into a company spreadsheet acc...
 3.26E: Sick days During contract negotiations, a company seeks to change t...
 3.27E: Standard deviation I For each lettered part, a through c, examine t...
 3.28E: Standard deviation II For each lettered part, a through c, examine ...
 3.29E: Pizza prices The histogram shows the distribution of the prices of ...
 3.30E: Neck size The histogram shows the neck sizes (in inches) of 250 men...
 3.31E: Pizza prices again Look again at the histogram of the pizza prices ...
 3.32E: Neck sizes again Look again at the histogram of menâ€™s neck sizes in...
 3.33E: Movie lengths 2010 The histogram shows the running times in minutes...
 3.34E: Golf drives 2013 The display shows the average drive distance (in y...
 3.35E: Movie lengths II 2010 Exercise 33 looked at the running times of mo...
 3.36E: Golf drives II 2013 Exercise 34 looked at distances PGA golfers can...
 3.37E: Movie earnings 2013 The histogram shows total gross earnings (in mi...
 3.38E: Cold weather A meteorologist preparing a talk about global warming ...
 3.39E: Payroll A small warehouse employs a supervisor at $1200 a week, an ...
 3.40E: Singers The frequency table shows the heights (in inches) of 130 me...
 3.41E: Gasoline 2014 In January 2014, 16 gas stations in eastern Wisconsin...
 3.42E: The Great One During his 20 seasons in the NHL, Wayne Gretzky score...
 3.43E: States The stemandleaf display shows populations of the 50 states...
 3.44E: Wayne Gretzky In Exercise, you examined the Number of games played ...
 3.45E: ARod 2013 Alex Rodriguez (known to fans as ARod) was the youngest...
 3.46E: Bird species 2013 The Cornell Lab of Ornithology holds an annual Ch...
 3.47E: Major Hurricanes 2013 The following data give the number of hurrica...
 3.48E: Horsepower Create a stemandleaf display for these horse powers of...
 3.49E: ARod again 2013 Students were asked to make a histogram of the num...
 3.50E: Return of the birds 2013 Students were given the assignment to make...
 3.51E: Acid rain Two researchers measured the pH (a scale on which a value...
 3.52E: Marijuana 2007 In 2007 the Council of Europe published a report ent...
 3.53E: Final grades A professor (of something other than Statistics!) dist...
 3.54E: Final grades revisited After receiving many complaints about his fi...
 3.55E: Zip codes HolesRUs, an Internet company that sells piercing jewel...
 3.56E: Zip codes revisited Here are some summary statistics to go with the...
 3.57E: Math scores 2013 The National Center for Education Statistics (nces...
 3.58E: Boomtowns 2011 In 2011, the website NewGeography .com listed its ra...
 3.59E: Population growth 2010 The following data show the percentage chang...
 3.60E: Prisons 2013 A report from the U.S. Department of Justice (www.ojp....
Solutions for Chapter 3: Stats: Data and Models 4th Edition
Full solutions for Stats: Data and Models  4th Edition
ISBN: 9780321986498
Solutions for Chapter 3
Get Full SolutionsThis textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Stats: Data and Models , edition: 4. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Stats: Data and Models was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321986498. Chapter 3 includes 56 full stepbystep solutions. Since 56 problems in chapter 3 have been answered, more than 41103 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter.

2 k p  factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each

Addition rule
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).

Additivity property of x 2
If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chisquare with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chisquare random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chisquare random variables.

Analytic study
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to a future population. Stability needs to be assumed. See Enumerative study

Average
See Arithmetic mean.

Biased estimator
Unbiased estimator.

Binomial random variable
A discrete random variable that equals the number of successes in a ixed number of Bernoulli trials.

Bivariate distribution
The joint probability distribution of two random variables.

Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).

Causal variable
When y fx = ( ) and y is considered to be caused by x, x is sometimes called a causal variable

Conditional probability mass function
The probability mass function of the conditional probability distribution of a discrete random variable.

Conidence coeficient
The probability 1?a associated with a conidence interval expressing the probability that the stated interval will contain the true parameter value.

Conidence interval
If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made

Control chart
A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the incontrol value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be incontrol, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an outofcontrol process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.

Correlation
In the most general usage, a measure of the interdependence among data. The concept may include more than two variables. The term is most commonly used in a narrow sense to express the relationship between quantitative variables or ranks.

Deining relation
A subset of effects in a fractional factorial design that deine the aliases in the design.

Discrete uniform random variable
A discrete random variable with a inite range and constant probability mass function.

Estimator (or point estimator)
A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.

Gamma random variable
A random variable that generalizes an Erlang random variable to noninteger values of the parameter r

Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.