 2.7E: Graphs in the news Find a bar chart of categorical data from a news...
 2.8E: Graphs in the news II Find a pie chart of categorical data from a n...
 2.9E: Tables in the news Find a frequency table of categorical data from ...
 2.10E: Tables in the news II Find a contingency table of categorical data ...
 2.11E: Movie genres II The pie chart summarizes the genres of 193 movies s...
 2.13E: Genres again Here is a bar chart summarizing the 2012 movie genres ...
 2.15E: Magnet schools An article in the Winter 2003 issue of Chance magazi...
 2.16E: Magnet schools again The Chance article about the Houston magnet sc...
 2.20E: Winter Olympics 2010 Twentysix countries won medals in the 2010 Wi...
 2.21E: Global warming The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press...
 2.22E: Modalities A survey of athletic trainers (Source: Scott F. Nadler, ...
 2.23E: Teen smokers The organization Monitoring the Future (www.monitoring...
 2.24E: Handguns In an effort to reduce the number of gunrelated homicides...
 2.25E: Movies by genre and rating Here’s a table that classifies movies re...
 2.26E: The last picture show Here’s another table showing information on 3...
 2.27E: Seniors Prior to graduation, a high school class was surveyed about...
 2.28E: Politics Students in an Intro Stats course were asked to describe t...
 2.29E: Pizza prices again Look again at the histogram of the pizza prices ...
 2.30E: Neck sizes again Look again at the histogram of men’s neck sizes in...
 2.31E: Magnet schools revisited The Chance magazine article described in f...
 2.32E: More politics Look once more at the table summarizing the political...
 2.33E: Back to school Examine the table about ethnicity and acceptance for...
 2.34E: Cars A survey of autos parked in student and staff lots at a large ...
 2.35E: Weather forecasts Just how accurate are the weather forecasts we he...
 2.36E: Twins In 2000, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAM...
 2.37E: Blood pressure A company held a blood pressure screening clinic for...
 2.38E: Obesity and exercise The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
 2.39E: Anorexia Hearing anecdotal reports that some patients undergoing tr...
 2.40E: Antidepressants and bone fractures For a period of five years, phys...
 2.41E: Drivers’ licenses 2011 The table on the next page shows the number ...
 2.42E: Tattoos A study by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Cen...
 2.43E: Hospitals Most patients who undergo surgery make routine recoveries...
 2.44E: Delivery service A company must decide which of two delivery servic...
 2.45E: Graduate admissions A 1975 article in the magazine Science examined...
 2.46E: Be a Simpson Can you design a Simpson’s paradox? Two companies are ...
Solutions for Chapter 2: Stats: Data and Models 4th Edition
Full solutions for Stats: Data and Models  4th Edition
ISBN: 9780321986498
Solutions for Chapter 2
Get Full SolutionsSince 35 problems in chapter 2 have been answered, more than 37536 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 2 includes 35 full stepbystep solutions. Stats: Data and Models was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321986498. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Stats: Data and Models , edition: 4.

2 k p  factorial experiment
A fractional factorial experiment with k factors tested in a 2 ? p fraction with all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each

aerror (or arisk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).

Attribute control chart
Any control chart for a discrete random variable. See Variables control chart.

Axioms of probability
A set of rules that probabilities deined on a sample space must follow. See Probability

Backward elimination
A method of variable selection in regression that begins with all of the candidate regressor variables in the model and eliminates the insigniicant regressors one at a time until only signiicant regressors remain

Bayes’ theorem
An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B (  ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A (  ).

Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).

Categorical data
Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.

Chisquare (or chisquared) random variable
A continuous random variable that results from the sum of squares of independent standard normal random variables. It is a special case of a gamma random variable.

Correlation matrix
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the offdiagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .

Covariance matrix
A square matrix that contains the variances and covariances among a set of random variables, say, X1 , X X 2 k , , … . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are the variances of the random variables and the offdiagonal elements are the covariances between Xi and Xj . Also called the variancecovariance matrix. When the random variables are standardized to have unit variances, the covariance matrix becomes the correlation matrix.

Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.

Distribution function
Another name for a cumulative distribution function.

Estimate (or point estimate)
The numerical value of a point estimator.

Event
A subset of a sample space.

Factorial experiment
A type of experimental design in which every level of one factor is tested in combination with every level of another factor. In general, in a factorial experiment, all possible combinations of factor levels are tested.

Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.

Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.

Gamma random variable
A random variable that generalizes an Erlang random variable to noninteger values of the parameter r

Geometric mean.
The geometric mean of a set of n positive data values is the nth root of the product of the data values; that is, g x i n i n = ( ) = / w 1 1 .