- Chapter 1:
- Chapter 1.4:
- Chapter 2:
- Chapter 2.1:
- Chapter 2.2:
- Chapter 2.3:
- Chapter 3:
- Chapter 3.1:
- Chapter 3.2:
- Chapter 3.3:
- Chapter 3.4:
- Chapter 4:
- Chapter 4.1:
- Chapter 4.2:
- Chapter 4.3:
- Chapter 4.4:
- Chapter 4.5:
- Chapter 5:
- Chapter 5.1:
- Chapter 5.2:
- Chapter 5.3:
- Chapter 5.4:
- Chapter 6:
- Chapter 6.1:
- Chapter 6.2:
- Chapter 6.3:
- Chapter 6.4:
- Chapter 7:
- Chapter 7.1:
- Chapter 7.2:
- Chapter 7.3:
- Chapter 7.4:
- Chapter 8:
Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach 9th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach | 9th Edition
Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach | 9th Edition - Solutions by ChapterGet Full Solutions
Additivity property of x 2
If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chi-square with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chi-square random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chi-square random variables.
In statistical hypothesis testing, this is a hypothesis other than the one that is being tested. The alternative hypothesis contains feasible conditions, whereas the null hypothesis speciies conditions that are under test
The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average
Average run length, or ARL
The average number of samples taken in a process monitoring or inspection scheme until the scheme signals that the process is operating at a level different from the level in which it began.
An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B ( | ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A ( | ).
Central composite design (CCD)
A second-order response surface design in k variables consisting of a two-level factorial, 2k axial runs, and one or more center points. The two-level factorial portion of a CCD can be a fractional factorial design when k is large. The CCD is the most widely used design for itting a second-order model.
An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.
Another term for the conidence coeficient.
A linear function of treatment means with coeficients that total zero. A contrast is a summary of treatment means that is of interest in an experiment.
The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.
Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.
Cumulative normal distribution function
The cumulative distribution of the standard normal distribution, often denoted as ?( ) x and tabulated in Appendix Table II.
Discrete uniform random variable
A discrete random variable with a inite range and constant probability mass function.
The amount of variability exhibited by data
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
Estimate (or point estimate)
The numerical value of a point estimator.
Extra sum of squares method
A method used in regression analysis to conduct a hypothesis test for the additional contribution of one or more variables to a model.
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.
Another name for the normal distribution, based on the strong connection of Karl F. Gauss to the normal distribution; often used in physics and electrical engineering applications
Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.