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# Solutions for Chapter 8: Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach 9th Edition

## Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073534985

Solutions for Chapter 8

Solutions for Chapter 8
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##### ISBN: 9780073534985

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach , edition: 9. Chapter 8 includes 41 full step-by-step solutions. Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073534985. Since 41 problems in chapter 8 have been answered, more than 152103 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• Analytic study

A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to a future population. Stability needs to be assumed. See Enumerative study

• Average

See Arithmetic mean.

• Axioms of probability

A set of rules that probabilities deined on a sample space must follow. See Probability

• Bayes’ theorem

An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B ( | ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A ( | ).

• Categorical data

Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.

• Chance cause

The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.

• Chi-square test

Any test of signiicance based on the chi-square distribution. The most common chi-square tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data

• Combination.

A subset selected without replacement from a set used to determine the number of outcomes in events and sample spaces.

• Completely randomized design (or experiment)

A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.

• Components of variance

The individual components of the total variance that are attributable to speciic sources. This usually refers to the individual variance components arising from a random or mixed model analysis of variance.

• Conditional variance.

The variance of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.

• Control chart

A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the in-control value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be in-control, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an out-of-control process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.

• Convolution

A method to derive the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables from an integral (or sum) of probability density (or mass) functions.

• Covariance matrix

A square matrix that contains the variances and covariances among a set of random variables, say, X1 , X X 2 k , , … . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are the variances of the random variables and the off-diagonal elements are the covariances between Xi and Xj . Also called the variance-covariance matrix. When the random variables are standardized to have unit variances, the covariance matrix becomes the correlation matrix.

• Crossed factors

Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

• Error variance

The variance of an error term or component in a model.

• Exhaustive

A property of a collection of events that indicates that their union equals the sample space.

• Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method

A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.

• Fraction defective control chart

See P chart

• Goodness of fit

In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.

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