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Solutions for Chapter 5: The Practice of Statistics 4th Edition
Full solutions for The Practice of Statistics | 4th Edition
In statistical hypothesis testing, this is a hypothesis other than the one that is being tested. The alternative hypothesis contains feasible conditions, whereas the null hypothesis speciies conditions that are under test
An effect that systematically distorts a statistical result or estimate, preventing it from representing the true quantity of interest.
A chart used to organize the various potential causes of a problem. Also called a ishbone diagram.
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that is due to only random forces and which cannot be traced to speciic sources, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a common cause.
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.
Another term for the conidence coeficient.
A tabular arrangement expressing the assignment of members of a data set according to two or more categories or classiication criteria
A linear function of treatment means with coeficients that total zero. A contrast is a summary of treatment means that is of interest in an experiment.
Cumulative normal distribution function
The cumulative distribution of the standard normal distribution, often denoted as ?( ) x and tabulated in Appendix Table II.
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
A probability distribution for a discrete random variable
A concept in parameter estimation that uses the variances of different estimators; essentially, an estimator is more eficient than another estimator if it has smaller variance. When estimators are biased, the concept requires modiication.
A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.
Extra sum of squares method
A method used in regression analysis to conduct a hypothesis test for the additional contribution of one or more variables to a model.
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.
Another name for the normal distribution, based on the strong connection of Karl F. Gauss to the normal distribution; often used in physics and electrical engineering applications
In multiple regression, the matrix H XXX X = ( ) ? ? -1 . This a projection matrix that maps the vector of observed response values into a vector of itted values by yˆ = = X X X X y Hy ( ) ? ? ?1 .