 2.2.1: True or false. Determine if the statements below are true or false,...
 2.2.2: Roulette wheel. The game of roulette involves spinning a wheel with...
 2.2.3: Four games, one winner. Below are four versions of the same game. Y...
 2.2.4: Backgammon. Backgammon is a board game for two players in which the...
 2.2.5: If you flip a fair coin 10 times, what is the probability of (a) ge...
 2.2.6: Dice rolls. If you roll a pair of fair dice, what is the probabilit...
 2.2.7: Swing voters. A 2012 Pew Research survey asked 2,373 randomly sampl...
 2.2.8: Poverty and language. The American Community Survey is an ongoing s...
 2.2.9: Disjoint vs. independent. In parts (a) and (b), identify whether th...
 2.2.10: Guessing on an exam. In a multiple choice exam, there are 5 questio...
 2.2.11: Educational attainment of couples. The table below shows the distri...
 2.2.12: School absences. Data collected at elementary schools in DeKalb Cou...
 2.2.13: Grade distributions. Each row in the table below is a proposed grad...
 2.2.14: Health coverage, frequencies. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillan...
 2.2.15: Joint and conditional probabilities. P(A) = 0.3, P(B) = 0.7 (a) Can...
 2.2.16: PB & J. Suppose 80% of people like peanut butter, 89% like jelly, a...
 2.2.17: Global warming. A 2010 Pew Research poll asked 1,306 Americans From...
 2.2.18: Health coverage, relative frequencies. The Behavioral Risk Factor S...
 2.2.19: Burger preferences. A 2010 SurveyUSA poll asked 500 Los Angeles res...
 2.2.20: Assortative mating. Assortative mating is a nonrandom mating patter...
 2.2.21: Drawing box plots. After an introductory statistics course, 80% of ...
 2.2.22: Predisposition for thrombosis. A genetic test is used to determine ...
 2.2.23: HIV in Swaziland. Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the w...
 2.2.24: Exit poll. Edison Research gathered exit poll results from several ...
 2.2.25: Its never lupus. Lupus is a medical phenomenon where antibodies tha...
 2.2.26: Twins. About 30% of human twins are identical, and the rest are fra...
 2.2.27: Marbles in an urn. Imagine you have an urn containing 5 red, 3 blue...
 2.2.28: Socks in a drawer. In your sock drawer you have 4 blue, 5 gray, and...
 2.2.29: Chips in a bag. Imagine you have a bag containing 5 red, 3 blue, an...
 2.2.30: Books on a bookshelf. The table below shows the distribution of boo...
 2.2.31: Student outfits. In a classroom with 24 students, 7 students are we...
 2.2.32: The birthday problem. Suppose we pick three people at random. For e...
 2.2.33: College smokers. At a university, 13% of students smoke. (a) Calcul...
 2.2.34: Ace of clubs wins. Consider the following card game with a wellshu...
 2.2.35: Hearts win. In a new card game, you start with a well shued full d...
 2.2.36: Is it worth it? Andy is always looking for ways to make money fast....
 2.2.37: Portfolio return. A portfolios value increases by 18% during a fina...
 2.2.38: Baggage fees. An airline charges the following baggage fees: $25 fo...
 2.2.39: The game of American roulette involves spinning a wheel with 38 slo...
 2.2.40: The game of European roulette involves spinning a wheel with 37 slo...
 2.2.41: Sally gets a cup of coee and a mun every day for breakfast from one...
 2.2.42: Ice cream usually comes in 1. 5 quart boxes (48 fluid ounces), and ...
 2.2.43: The histogram shown below represents the weights (in kg) of 47 fema...
 2.2.44: The relative frequency table below displays the distribution of ann...
Solutions for Chapter 2: Probability (special topic)
Full solutions for OpenIntro Statistics  3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781943450039
Solutions for Chapter 2: Probability (special topic)
Get Full SolutionsSince 44 problems in chapter 2: Probability (special topic) have been answered, more than 41528 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. OpenIntro Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781943450039. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: OpenIntro Statistics, edition: 3. Chapter 2: Probability (special topic) includes 44 full stepbystep solutions.

2 k factorial experiment.
A full factorial experiment with k factors and all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each.

aerror (or arisk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).

Acceptance region
In hypothesis testing, a region in the sample space of the test statistic such that if the test statistic falls within it, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This terminology is used because rejection of H0 is always a strong conclusion and acceptance of H0 is generally a weak conclusion

Adjusted R 2
A variation of the R 2 statistic that compensates for the number of parameters in a regression model. Essentially, the adjustment is a penalty for increasing the number of parameters in the model. Alias. In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.

Average run length, or ARL
The average number of samples taken in a process monitoring or inspection scheme until the scheme signals that the process is operating at a level different from the level in which it began.

Bimodal distribution.
A distribution with two modes

C chart
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defectsperunit or U chart.

Conditional variance.
The variance of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.

Confounding
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.

Cook’s distance
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.

Correlation matrix
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the offdiagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .

Crossed factors
Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

Decision interval
A parameter in a tabular CUSUM algorithm that is determined from a tradeoff between false alarms and the detection of assignable causes.

Eficiency
A concept in parameter estimation that uses the variances of different estimators; essentially, an estimator is more eficient than another estimator if it has smaller variance. When estimators are biased, the concept requires modiication.

Enumerative study
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study

Error variance
The variance of an error term or component in a model.

Firstorder model
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irstorder response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irstorder model is also called a main effects model

Frequency distribution
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on

Gaussian distribution
Another name for the normal distribution, based on the strong connection of Karl F. Gauss to the normal distribution; often used in physics and electrical engineering applications

Generating function
A function that is used to determine properties of the probability distribution of a random variable. See Momentgenerating function