A gas chromatogram of a mixture of toluene and ethyl acetate is shown here. (a) Use the width of each peak (measured at the base) to calculate the number of theoretical plates in the column. Estimate all lengths to the nearest 0.1 mm. (b) Using the width of the toluene peak at its base, calculate the width expected at half-height. Compare the measured and calculated values. When the thickness of the pen line is significant relative to the length being measured, it is important to take the pen line width into account. You can measure from the edge of one line to the corresponding edge of the other line, as shown here.
ELECTRONEGATIVITY Who wants electrons Which Electron is tugging harder on its electrons Bond Types- One of two elements in a covalent bond may even be strong enough to steal the electron entirely, this is called a Dipole moment. 0.0-0.4= Nonpolar, or Equal bond 0.4-1.8=Covalent, electrons shared unequally. Polar 1.8-3.3=Ionic, electron transfers. Polar Molecules- Contain polar bonds, has a separation of positive and negative charge called a dipole that is indicated with funny symbols. Has dipoles that do not cancel. Lone pairs are a symbol of polar molecules. LONE PAIR POLAR BEAR CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Atomic Mass- Important. Can be used as a conversion factor, with AM/1 atom of X element ex. What is the mass in amu of 12 carbon atoms !2*12.011= 144.132 Formula mas of