When the temperature is at 30C, the A-36 steel pipe fits snugly !between the two fuel tanks. When fuel flows through the pipe, the temperatures at ends A and B rise to 130C and &0C, respectively. If the temperature drop along the pipe is linear, determine the average normal stress developed in the pipe. Assume the walls of each tank act as a spring, each having a stiffness of k = 900 MN/m.
6.0: Storage Management. Since main memory is usually too small to accommodate all the data and programs permanently, the computer system must provide secondary storage to back up main memory. Modern computer systems use disks as the primary on-line storage medium for information (both programs and data). The file system provides the mechanism for on-line storage of and access to both data and programs residing on the disks. A file is a collection of related information defined by its creator. The files are mapped by the operating system onto physical devices. Files are normally organized into directories for ease of use. The devices that attach to a computer vary in many aspects. Some devices transfer a character or a block of characters at a time. Some can be accessed only sequentially, others randomly. Some transfer data synchronously, others asynchronously. Some are dedicated, some shared. They can be read-only or read–write. They vary greatly in speed. In many ways, they are also the slowest major component of the computer. Because of all this device variation, the operating system needs to provide a wide range of functionality to applications, to allow them to control all aspects of the devices. One key goal of an operating system’s I/O subsystem is to provide the simplest interface possible to the rest of the system. Because devices are a performance bottleneck, another key is to optimize I/O for maximum concurrency. 6.1 Overview of Mass-Storage Structure In this section, we present a general overview of the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage d