A 20-m chain of mass 12 kg is suspended between two points at the same elevation. Knowing that the sag is 8 m, determine (a) the distance between the supports, (b) the maximum tension in the chain.
5.0 : I/O MANAGEMENT One of the main functions of an operating system is to control all the computer’s I/O (Input/output) devices. It must issue commands to the devices, catch interrupts, and handle errors. It should also provide an interface between the devices and the rest of the system that is simple and easy to use. To the extent possible, the interface should be the same for all devices (device independence). The I/O code represents a significant fraction of the total operating system. I/O software can be structured in layers, with each layer having a well-defined task to perform. 5.1 PRINCIPLES OF I/O HARDWARE Different people look at I/O hardware in different ways. Electrical engineers look at it in terms of chips, wires, power supplies, motors, and all the other physical compone