For the following exercises, find the length of the curve over the given interval.

r = 6 on the interval \(0 \leq \theta \leq \frac{\pi}{2}\)

Text Transcription:

0 leq theta leq pi/2

Common-size statements: percentage (to track changes in capital structure; for companies of different sizes) ● Balance sheet: % of total assets ● Income statement: % of total sales EBITDA = EBIT + depreciation and amortization (non-cash intangible depreciation) ● Ability to generate cash from operations Financial ratios ● Short-term solvency/liquidity (creditors most interested) ○ Current ratio = current assets / current liabilities ○ Quick (acid-test) ratio = (current assets - inventory) / current liabilities ■ Eliminates inventory tied up (illiquid) ○ Cash ratio = cash / current liabilities ● Long-term solvency/financial leverage ○ Total debt ratio = total debt / total assets ○ Debt-equity ratio = total debt / total equity ○ Equity multiplier = total assets / total equity = 1 + debt-equity ratio ○ Times interest earned (TIE) or interest coverage ratio = EBIT / interest ○ Cash coverage = EBITDA / interest ○ Interest bearing debt / EBITDA ● Asset management/utilization/turnover ○ Inventory turnover = COGS / inventory ■ Days’ sales in inventory = 365 / inventory turnover ○ Total asset turnover = sales / total assets ○ Capital intensity (time it takes to turnover assets completely)= total assets / sales ○ Receivables turnover = sales / A/R ■ How many times collected outstanding credit accounts and lent money again