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Get Full Access to Atkins' Physical Chemistry - 11 Edition - Chapter 15g - Problem P15g.3
Get Full Access to Atkins' Physical Chemistry - 11 Edition - Chapter 15g - Problem P15g.3

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ISBN: 9780198769866 2042

## Solution for problem P15G.3 Chapter 15G

Atkins' Physical Chemistry | 11th Edition

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Atkins' Physical Chemistry | 11th Edition

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Problem P15G.3

Show that if a substance responds nonlinearly to two sources of radiation, one of frequency $$\omega_{1}$$ and the other of frequency $$\omega_{2}$$, then it may give rise to radiation of the sum and difference of the two frequencies. This nonlinear optical phenomenon is known as frequency mixing and is used to expand the wavelength range of lasers in laboratory applications, such as spectroscopy and photochemistry.

Text Transcription:

omega_1

omega_2

Step-by-Step Solution:
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End of Chapter 2 *NOTE:number the carbons to where the lowest number is assigned to the item that comes ﬁrst in alphabetical order when naming the molecule;sec-butyl comes before tert-butyl when naming Important pKa's to Remember Carboxylic acid=5 Phenol=10 Methyl alcohol=15 1˚ alcohol=16 2˚ alcohol=17 3˚ alcohol=18 Thiols=11 H2S=7 Ketone=20 Aldehyde=17 Sources of Petroleum: 1.Natural sources like plants and organisms 2.Synthesis by chemists Intermolecular Forces: 1.Hydrogen Bonding 2.Dipole-Dipole 3.Dipole-Induced Dipole 4.Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole (*these are the forces for alkanes) Trends: 1.Greater molecular weight=stronger intermolecular forces=higher boiling point 2.Least branched constitutional isomer=highest boiling point 3.More carbons in a molecules=more heat is released during combustion 4.increased branching=more stable alkane=lower heat of combustion=lower potential energy *NOTE:alkanes are insoluble in H2O Oxidation Numbers (ON) -oxidation is losing electrons (ON increase) and reduction is gaining electrons (ON decrease) Common Oxidation Numbers: O=2- H=1+ F=1- N=3- *Exceptions:O in H2O2=1- and H in KH=1- If a molecule is neutral,the sum of all the oxidation numbers of all the atoms in the molecule is zero. Ex. Ex. To Find ON from Lewis Structures: 1.If two atoms are different,all electrons go to the atom that is more electronegative of the two. 2.If both atoms are the same,the electrons get split equally between the two. Ex. To Find ON from Bond-Line Formulas

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