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Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780134015187 | Authors: John McMurry, David Ballantine, Carl Hoeger, Virginia Peterson ISBN: 9780134015187 2044

Solution for problem 17.42 Chapter 17

Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition

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Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780134015187 | Authors: John McMurry, David Ballantine, Carl Hoeger, Virginia Peterson

Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition

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Problem 17.42

Give systematic names for the following carboxylic acids:

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Chapter 26 Notes -­‐ Secondary growth causes an increase in the girth of stems and roots o In regions that are no longer elongating, secondary growth increases girth. o Occurs in all gymnosperms and I most angiosperms other than monocots o Involves activity of two lateral meristems – vascular cambium and cork cambium (phellogen) o Herbaceous plants undergo little or not secondary growth o Woody plants (trees and shrubs) may continue to increase in thickness for many years § Apical Meristem • Protoderm o Epidermis • Ground Meristem o Ground tissue § Cortex • Cork cambium o Cork o Phelloderm § Pith § Pith rays • Interfascicular cambium o Vascular cambium § Secondary phloem • Procambium o Primary phloem o Undifferentiated procambium § Fascicular cambium • Vascular cambium o Secondary xylem o Primary xylem -­‐ Plants are often classified according to their seasonal growth cycles o Annuals: plants that undergo entire cycle from seed to vegetative plant to flowering plant to seed in single growing season o Biennials: two seasons required for period from seed germination to seed formation o Perennials: plants in which vegetative structures live year after year § Some perennials are herbaceous, others are woody -­‐ The vascular cambium contains two types of initials: fusiform initials and ray initials o Periclinal divisions (parallel to surface) allow fusiform initials to give rise to components of the axial system o Ray initials produce ray cells, which form vascular rays, or radial system o Increase in circumference of cambium is accomplished by anticlinal (perpendicular to surface) divisions of initials -­‐ Cork cambium produces a protective covering on the secondary plant body o First cork cambium in most stems originates in a layer of cells immediately below the epidermis o Cork cambium produces cork toward outside and phelloderm toward inside o Periderm: cork, cork cambium, phelloderm o Although most of periderm consists of compactly arranged cells, isolated areas called lenticels have numerous intercellular spaces and plan an important role in the exchange of gases through the periderm -­‐ Bark consists of all tissues outside the vascular cambium o Most of phloem of bark is non-­‐conducting in old roots and stems o Sieve elements are short-­‐lived, and in many species only the present year’s growth increment contains functional sieve elements o After the first periderm, subsequently formed periderms originate deeper and deeper in the bark from parenchyma cells of non-­‐ conducting phloem -­‐ Wood is secondary xylem o Woods are classified as either softwoods or hardwoods o All softwoods are conifers o All hardwoods are angiosperms (woody magnoliids and woody eudicots) o Conifer woods, which are structurally simpler than angiosperm woods, consist of tracheids and parenchyma cells § Some contain resin ducts o Angiosperm woods may contain a combination of all the following cell types: § Vessel elements § Tracheids § Several types of fibers § Parenchyma cells -­‐ Growth rings result from the periodic activity of the vascular cambium o Growth layers that correspond to yearly increments of growth are called annual rings o Difference in density between the late wood of one growth increment and the early wood of the following increment makes it possible to distinguish the growth layers o Density and specific gravity are good indicators of the strength of wood o In many plants, non-­‐conducting heartwood is visibly distinct from actively conducting sapwood -­‐ Reaction wood develops in response to the force of gravity in a leaning branch or stem o Commonly, reaction wood develops on the underside of leaning trunks and limbs of conifers and on the upper side of similar parts in angiosperms o Its formation causes straightening of the trunk or limb o Reaction wood is called compression wood in conifers and tension wood in angiosperms

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Chapter 17, Problem 17.42 is Solved
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Textbook: Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry)
Edition: 8
Author: John McMurry, David Ballantine, Carl Hoeger, Virginia Peterson
ISBN: 9780134015187

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 281 chapters, and 456 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 17.42 from chapter: 17 was answered by Aimee Notetaker, our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/25/22, 03:57PM. Since the solution to 17.42 from 17 chapter was answered, more than 200 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “?Give systematic names for the following carboxylic acids:” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 8 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry), edition: 8. Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) was written by Aimee Notetaker and is associated to the ISBN: 9780134015187.

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