Arrange these elements in order of increasing atomic size: Ca, Rb, S, Si, Ge, F.
The atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms (just like a radius is half the diameter of a circle). However, this idea is complicated by the fact that not all atoms are normally bound together in the same way. Some are bound by covalent bonds in molecules, some are attracted to each other in ionic crystals, and others are held in metallic crystals. Nevertheless, it is possible for a vast majority of elements to form covalent molecules in which two like atoms are held together by a single covalent bond. The covalent radii of these molecules are often referred to as atomic radii. This distance is measured in picometers. Atomic radius patterns are observed throughout the periodic table.
Atomic size gradually decreases from left to right across a period of elements. This is because, within a period or family of elements, all electrons are added to the same shell. However, at the same time, protons are being added to the nucleus, making it more positively charged. The effect of increasing proton number...