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Locate the centroid y of the shaded area. y x 16 ft 4 ft 4

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133918922 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler ISBN: 9780133918922 126

Solution for problem 9-22 Chapter 9

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition

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Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133918922 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition

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Problem 9-22

Locate the centroid y of the shaded area. y x 16 ft 4 ft 4 ft y (4 x ) 2 1 2 Probs. 921/22

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Chapter 6 Overview of Protein - Body is made up of thousands of proteins - Contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - General functions • Regulates and maintains body functions • Provides essential form of nitrogen (in the form of amino acids) Proteins - In the developed world: • Diet is typically rich in protein - In the developing world: • Protein is a deficiency is an issue • Important to focus on protein in diet planning - Aside from water, protein makes up the major part of the lean body tissue - About 17% of body weight Protein Structure - Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins - Amino acids contain nitrogen bonded to carbon • makes them unique from carbohydrates and fats Amino Acids - The proteins in our bodies are made up of 20 different amino acids • 9 are essentials • Some are limiting • 11 are nonessential • New category • Conditionally or acquired indispensable • Infants or disease states Amino Acid Structure - Central carbon - Acid group - Amino group - Side group - Hydrogen - Side group for each different amino acid is different • This gives each amino acid its own characteristics Peptide Bond - Amino acids are connected together by a peptide bond - 2 amino acids-dipeptide, 3 amino acids - tripeptide, etc. - Many amino acids-polypeptide - Some proteins contain multiple polypeptide chains Protein Structure - The sequence of amino acids is called the protein primary structure - Primary structure leads to the protein higher order structure - The higher order structure causes the protein to get into a specific shape (native conformation) This shape is necessary for the protein to work properly - Disruption of Normal Structure - Denaturation • Heat • Strong acids • Bases • Heavy metals - Protein unfolds - Can’t work properly Protein Primary Structure - The protein’s primary structure is determined by the genes (DNA). DNA is kept in the cell’s nucleus - The information of the protein’s primary structure gets transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) - mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome (rough ER) where the protein gets translated (made) Protein Synthesis - DNA contains coded instructions - Copies of codes • transferred to the cytoplasm (via mRNA) - Amino acids added one at a time • With aid of transfer RNA (tRNA) - Requires energy Central Dogma of Biology DNA <> RNA > Protein How to Change Protein Structure - Genetic alterations - Can change the protein’s primary structure - Sometimes this is no big deal - Sometimes it is • It can lead to genetic diseases Sickle Cell Anemia - A single base substitution • causes one amino acid to be changed in the polypeptide of the hemoglobin protein - Alters the higher order structure of the protein - The protein doesn't work as efficiently - Hemoglobin binds oxygen in red blood cells - With sickle cell anemia, RBC become sickle shapes instead of biconcave Digestion of Proteins - Pre-digestion—cooking • heat denatures proteins, softens food - Digestion begins in stomach 1. Acid (HCL) denatures proteins 2. Pepsin (enzyme) breaks peptide bonds of proteins resulting in protein fragments - Pepsin released by cells in stomach & activates by the acidic environment - What controls pepsin/stomach acid - gastrin: hormone - released in response to think about food, chewing, and digesting food - In the stomach is partially digested protein and other nutrients—chyme - gluten:protein (wheat), makes dough elasticity Movement to SI - Release of CCK (hormone)—chyme stimulates - CCK causes pancreas to release proteolytic enzymes (tripsin,chymotrypsin) - pepsin inactivates (elevated PH) - several peptidases (2-3 amino acid in length) & free amino acids absorbed by active transport - any intracellular peptides digested by enzymes within cells Amino Acid Absorption - Taken up by capillaries & taken to the liver via the portal vein - liver - amino acids used as building blocks to make liver proteins - broken down for energy - released into blood - converted to nonessential amino acids, glucose/fat Gluten Sensitivity: Celiac Disease - incomplete gluten breakdown in SI leaving small peptides & amino acids - Celiac disease, inflammatory response to small peptides & amino acids - Autoimmune response, genetic predisposition - Prevalence in US is 1 in 133 - In people with related symptoms: 1 in 56 Infant Digestion of Proteins - Up to 4-5 months of age - GI tract is somewhat permeable to small proteins (whole proteins can be absorbed) - If breasted, this allows antibodies to be passed from mother to baby - Recommendation: - waiting until infant is 6-12 mo. old before introducing allergy foods

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Chapter 9, Problem 9-22 is Solved
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Textbook: Engineering Mechanics: Statics
Edition: 14
Author: Russell C. Hibbeler
ISBN: 9780133918922

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Locate the centroid y of the shaded area. y x 16 ft 4 ft 4