Consider the circuit in Fig. 4.145. (a) Replace the resistor by a zero resistance ammeter and determine the ammeter reading. (b) To verify the reciprocity theorem, interchange the ammeter and the 12-V source and determine the ammeter reading again.
PY 370 Exam 3 Study Questions Chapter 7: The Birth and Development of the Behaviorist Tradition To understand difficult, complex phenomena, a scientist should seek the simplest explanations. What is this principle called Parsimony Portraying animal behavior in human terms is called Anthropomorphism Who introduced the term comparative psychology George J. Romanes What were the animals in the puzzle box supposed to achieve Escape from it What does the connectionism principle connect Situations & responses Explain the learning curve In theory, it should take an experimental animal a lot of time to escape from the box in the first place. Then, with each trial, the animal was supposed to spend less time and make fewer trials before a successful solution was found. What Pavlov’s informal term for highest nervous activity behavior conditioned reflexes are also called acquired Pavlov received the Nobel Prize for what type of research research of the digestive system and salivary glands nd The 2 signaling system according to Pavlov was language What was Pavlov’s characteristics of the nervous system strength, balance, & agility How did Pavlov explain mental illness One of the characteristics of mental illness, according to Pavlov, was the individual’s difficulty or inability to form new reflexes. What was his view of the use of animals in research Pavlov believed that the use of animals in research was necessary for the sake of science, medicine, and, above all, people. Bekhterev believed that 2 principal actions underwent significant change during evolution from plants to animals attack & defense The study of the emergence, development, & behavior of groups that display their collective activity in unity is called in Bekhterev’s terminology collective reflexology How did Bekhterev understand immortality When a person dies, the decay of the body leads to decomposition of the organism into simple elements. Yet life is not over, it continues. It transforms into new forms of energy, including the thoughts and actions of other people. Watson became APA president in 1915 There are 3 founding principles of behaviorism: stimulus &response, habit formation & habit integration How did Watson explain mental illness A habit disturbance (or a maladaptive reflex). Who was Little Albert A 9-month-old baby who was a subject of psychological experiments on fear formation. Among the founding principles of behaviorism, in Watson’s theory, are stimulus and response, habit formation, and_____________. habit integration _______________is the term in Pavlov’s theory to describe physiological activities of the brain’s cortex; Pavlov commonly called it behavior highest nervous activity ___________is the process of coinfluence between excitement and inhibition according to Pavlov. induction Morgan and Romanes were supporters of the ______ approach to comparative psychology. anthropomorphic Thorndike believed that a true psychologist must know: math Thorndike introduced a new experimental method labeled: the puzzle box What was Watson’s view of introspection he ruled it out Second signaling system, according to Pavlov is consciousness false Jacques Loeb believed that consciousness was little more than the ability of an organism to gain behavioral options as a result of experience true Bekhterev was a founder of the first German experimental psychological laboratory in 1879. false Chapter 8: The Birth and Development of Psychoanalysis Historians refer to young people living though WWI as the lost generation Explain scientific perplexity & creative perplexity Scientific perplexity refers to the scientific theories and new discoveries that interpreted the physical world and life—in all its forms— as extremely complex and multidimensional. Creative perplexity refers to the new forms of reflection and expression in the arts and other human activities. Explain psychological resistance Psychological resistance refers to situations in which patients were reluctant or unable to discuss their psychological problems with a therapist. In Paris, Freud studied brain pathology in the clinic of Charcot The accurate translation of ‘free associations’ is ‘free occurrences’ Name the 3 key steps of psychoanalysis as a new method Three steps: (1) collects the patient’s reflections, (2) analyzes them, and (3) interprets them to the patient Dreams according to Freud were largely wish fulfillment Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality introduced Freud’s theory of libido When did Freud travel to the US 1909 How did WWI affect Freud’s views of human beings Freud’s worldview became increasingly pessimistic. He saw human behavior as self-destructive and rooted in the repressed instinctual tendencies that lead toward destruction. Explain Thanatos This is a repressed desire to destroy and kill: the death drive. Who is an analysand a therapist Which US president did Freud analyze Wilson How did Freud view & explain religion The roots of religion are psychological. Religion is rooted on the individual’s infantile fears, which are reinforced by cultural prohibitions. Religion also is a restraining force on human choices. Physical or psychological difficulties that become impediments are called organ inferiority There are 3 outcomes of an individual’s compensatory efforts: genius, degeneration & neurosis What were the main disagreements between Adler & Freud Adler questioned sexuality as the most dominant force in human life— one of the central points of Freud’s psychoanalysis. Adler emphasized the importance of the relationships among siblings, not mostly that between the parents and the child. Explain social interest in Adler’s theory Social interest is the desire to be connected with other people. Individuals have to take into consideration other people and their interests. Social interest is the desire to adapt positively to the perceived social environment. Adler focused on organ inferiority, the individual’s compensatory tendencies, and on the individual’s social interest. The process of fulfilling an individual’s potential by integrating opposites into a harmonious whole, by getting away from the aimlessness of life is called individuation Jung believed he was an introvert Explain 3 main goals of Jung’s therapy The first goal of therapy was to teach patients how to learn their neurosis. The second goal of Jungian therapy was balance restoration (the mental energy in us is limited, and if we pursue one activity, other activities receive less energy). The third goal was individuation—the process of fulfilling an individual’s potential by integrating opposites into a harmonious whole What is collective unconscious This is an impersonal layer in human psyche, which is inherited and shared with other members of the species. The content of the collective unconscious consists of archetypes, or images of the primordial (elemental, ancient) character. People, according to Jung, share similar ancestral experiences. These archetypes manifest in three universal ways: dreams, fantasies, and delusions. In Adler’s vocabulary, attempts to overcome the discomfort and negative experiences caused by their inferiority are called compensation Freud labeled the repressed instinctual tendencies that lead toward destruction as: death wish What is the component of the psyche that makes compromises between the id and the environment and is guided by the reality principle ego According to Freud: this is the term standing for all the tendencies that strive toward the integration of living substance eros Adler wrote about three major and interconnected social ties appearing in social interest occupation, society, & love Freud promoted him for the leadership position in the newly formed international psychoanalytic movement. Who was that person Jung Jung modified and developed the method of free association, calling his own method simply: the ‘association method’ Wish fulfillment—a symbolic attempt to realize an unfulfilled desire. The discharge of a tension by imagining a satisfying situation true Superego is the component of the psyche acting as the source of irrational impulses. false Eros—or life instinct, a collective name for all the instinctual tendencies that lead away from pain and suffering. true Chapter 9: The Paths of Gestalt Psychology The 1933 German Law of the Prevention of Congenitally III Progeny was aimed at the mentally ill How did Nazism affect psychology as an academic discipline Nazism required scientists and educators surrender their personal interests and pledge their unconditional support to the state and its leadership. Nazism placed ideology rooted in racism and prejudice above science. Why did communist ideologues consider psychology a ‘useless’ science Psychology was seen as a “useless” discipline because it could add nothing new to biology or physiology. It was believed that a scientist educated in neurophysiology, for example, should explain human experience better than anyone else. History and biology were considered the only disciplines necessary to explain human behavior. What was another name for Gestalt psychology that didn’t last Holistic psychology Gestalt laws refer to perceptual functioning Explain some principles of Gestalt psychology by looking at something or somebody right in front Take, for example, the Law of Figure and Ground. We perceive a person as somewhat separate from the background: we do not describe a chair, or a desk, or a wall first; we see a person and then the details surrounding him or her. Köhler maintained, contrary to Thorndike’s ideas, that the learning process is not gradual What are the 3 important features of insight-based learning The first important characteristic of insight is the animal’s reflection of the whole layout of elements in the field. The second important feature of insight-based solutions is that they are a perceptual reconstruction of the task. The learning process is not necessarily gradual. It is very quick, almost instantaneous. The third feature is that insight-based learning can be transferred from one problem or situation to other situations and tasks. Where did Köhler collect the data for his book The Mentality of Apes Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Topology in Lewin’s view helps describe an individual’s intentions, actions, & conflicts Lewin introduced 3 leadership styles: laissez-faire, democratic & authoritarian Explain the Zeigarnik effect Unfinished tasks are remembered much better than the finished ones. Who coined the term organismic psychology Goldstein What were T-groups Short-term educational programs, a kind of collective training exercise. As members of a T-group, individuals learn the basic habits of group com- munication, learn more about other participants and themselves, discuss group goals, and find different ways to improve the group’s effectiveness. What were the individual features of some Gestalt psychologists for which they have been informally criticized in the US They were perceived (stereotypically) as caring more about impressive demonstrations rather than psychological research; they also appeared formal, dry, and incomprehensible. In Gestalt psychology, this term stands for the ability of seeing into a situation, understanding its “inner” nature. This is also a sudden, intuitive perception or grasping of useful relations in a given situation. What is it insight What is the term for the correlated phenomena that people experience and the underlying processes in the brain isomorphism He is regarded as the originator of the Gestalt theory. He suggested main theoretical principles and conducted early empirical studies. Max Wertheimer If Wertheimer was a “pioneer” of Gestalt psychology, then Koffka was a: spokesperson The Mentality of Apes was written by: Köhler Köhler maintained, contrary to Thorndike’s assumptions, that the learning process is very quick, almost instantaneous Before the war, Köhler was sent to conduct research on animal cognition. What kind of animals did he study monkeys In Nazi Germany, authors of non-Aryan origin were banned and their books burned. True Gestalt has several meanings including “value” “role,” “norm,” or “custom.” False In 1913, right before the war, Köhler was sent to conduct research in the United States and Canada false Chapter 10: Theoretical and Applied Psychology After the Great War Francis Cecil Sumner was the 1 African American to get a PhD in psychology Early Chinese psychology in the 2oth century was heavily influenced by Japanese scholars Name at least 3 obstacles that American women choosing a career in psychology faced in the 1920s Social tradition; gender prejudice; and the common practice of allocating women to assisting positions. On the basis of measurements of the Army Testing Project, psychologists wanted to create categories of the recruits according to their ______ mental abilities A particular issue w/which the physicians at Ellis Island had to contend during testing procedure was the identification of cases of mental deficiency Name the difference between the Alpha & Beta tests The Army Alpha Test was designed for literate groups and the Army Beta for those who were illiterate, had very poor English written skills, or were non-English speakers. The Alpha test contained eight subtests on analogies, questions on everyday judgments, understanding of directions given, simple arithmetic problems, and so on. The Beta test included picture completion, drawing, and symbol recognition. What was the popular belief about the sources of human intelligence it was believed to be inherited Mental surveys were designed to study mental capacity Psychologists at the Iowa Child Welfare Station studied mainly ordinary children What was the contribution of the Iowa Child Welfare Station to the nature- nurture debate IQ could be changed by deliberate effort in a particular social and education environment. Where was the Hawthorne manufacturing plant Chicago Who is a founder of sports psychology in the US Coleman Griffith What is the Hawthorne effect A positive effect of properly organized work relationships on workers’ productivity and satisfaction. What were Vygotsky’s university degrees Law & history/philosophy What is cultural medication in Vygotsky’s theory of human consciousness Every psychological function, thinking as an example, appears twice. First, It is an “outside” social activity or learning. Second, this learning is internalized as thinking. Human consciousness therefore should be understood in the context of interaction of an individual with the outside world. The essence of human consciousness is in its unity with the cultural environment. What are the practical applications of Vygotsky’s idea of the zone of proximal development Not only do teachers and parents follow and accommodate children but also challenge, accelerate, improve, and enhance their potential. The formal operations stage according to Piaget develops after age 11 Piaget spent most of his professional life at the University of Geneva What was the essence of Piaget’s interview method Piaget asked children to solve certain problems or perform educational tasks. First, he would ask a child a standard question and record an answer. Then, he would ask the child additional, nonstandard questions based on the responses. Piaget emphasized the importance of giving full attention to the child, stressing listening, refraining from arguing, paying attention to what the child does, and helping the child say what she or he wants to say. Piaget’s main task was not only to record and interpret the child’s words but also to see how the words and sentences relate to the task that the child performs. What is genetic epistemology Attempts to explain knowledge (scientific knowledge in particular) from the standpoint of knowledge’s history. A method requiring participants to explore their own internal conflicts through acting out their emotions in front of one another was called psychodrama What is the difference between personality & character Character is rather a moral category. Personality refers to the objective self, the fundamental adjustment patterns that an individual forms over the course of his or her experience. What is the authoritarian personality Such individuals are prone to mystical thinking and prejudice against particular social groups. They are obedient to authority figures, resistant to innovation, and prone to anger and violence. These individuals—because of their psychological features—eagerly accept limits on their freedom and accept social injustice. This term was coined by German psychologist William Stern and stood for the branch of applied psychology directed toward treatment of human problems: psychotechnics This was an approach initiated by Allport who argued that personality consists of a potent collection of qualities or traits trait theory In the Vygotsky’s system, the difference between a child’s learning progress with help or guidance and learning achievement without guidance of an adult is called zone of proximal development Vygotsky considered speech a special ________, which our ancestors acquired in the process of evolution tool Vygotsky is remembered as a founder of the field called special education Approximately in the 1920s, American psychologists generally accepted the term character to describe the moral aspect of behavior. Temperament referred largely to biological factors Muzafer Sherif showed in his experiments how people form _______________ or patterns of actions or judgments that influence the behavior of individuals later on. group norms Overall, the results of the Army Testing Project did not bring significant changes to the way the military selected and placed its recruits. true Researchers and practitioners as well as the general public in the United States in the early 20th century believed that human intelligence was socially determined false In collaboration with the National Research Council, the Western Electric Company conducted research at its Hawthorne-Bloomberg manufacturing plant in New York False