In the circuit of Fig. 8.71, the switch instantaneously moves from position A to B at Find for all t 0.
Key Box: th April 5 ***: Know for test besides definitions Intro: Mind altering substances- often used for religious practices to communicate with gods. ***: Definition Cannabis Sativa Marijuana = hemp ** **: Word origin/ scientific name Dates back 10,000 years ago – featured on Chinese pots. The Chinese say God gave *** : Titles man one plant that can sustain us hemp o Why: 1. Durable fiber (makes clothes, ropes, etc.) 2. Edible Seeds (contain a fair amount of oil, can be roasted- good source of nutrition) 3. Oil (seeds have so much oil, Chinese would extract oil for lamps and paints) 4. To correct spiritual imbalance (psycho-activity) A. Can’t give credit to Chinese for exploiting hemp for its psycho activity – That was the Hindu in India a. In India, they give a guest a drink of hospitality called Bhang (mixture of cannabis leaves, milk, honey, and spices) B. Smoking didn’t become popular until 1600s in Africa. a. Not a major European thing till late 1700s b. Reached Americas in 1500s – Remember the sugar triangle When slaves came from Africa they saw a recognizable plant in the Caribbean (it was there due to the failed attempt for making fibers) C. Louisiana and Texas were among the first states to prohibit the use of marijuana. a. Throughout the 1700s & 1800s it was widely used in medical field b. None of these laws seem to stop the use or spread of drug D. Main ingredient – THC – compound that gives it the psycho-activity Poppy Plant genus: Papaver – has a milky latex that produces opium (latex capsule plant) A. Greeks refer to this plant as the happy plant – it induces sleep and relieves pain a. Started in Middle East and worked its way to the Far East b. Became the most important trade item between British and China – Brit grew opium in India for quick transport to trade in China for treasures i. In 1837, China officials destroyed British ship containing opium supplies 1. This was the start of the opium wars ii. British in return invaded China and forced them to take/sell/&trade opium, plus they took over Hong Kong and used it as main port for opium trade iii. 1865, China tried again to stop opium trade… thus, another war 1. Chinese lost again 2. In 1906, Brits finally agreed to reduce it 3. In 1949, Brits could no longer trade/force opium into China B. Has 40+ alkaloids, including: a. Morphine b. Codeine Ingredients in opium C. Opium is still lucrative crop in Middle East Laudanum very popular medication: contain mixture of alcohol and opium A. The cure all, quickly addictive; gave it to kids to stop them from crying B. 1803- finally extracted morphine from opium a. Morphine is 10 times stronger than opium; doctors majorly started prescribing/using it b. 1865 – civil war ended & men went home addicted to morphine i. Then became known for its addictive tendencies c. 1889 Chemist attempted to make morphine less addictive and made heroine – complete opposite affect – more addictive i. 1890s became illegal to use heroine April 12 th Coca Cocaine – Erythroxylem: Red Wood A. Native to South America, used by natives for centuries in high elevation in the Andes a. Produces feeling of joy, makes you immune to hunger and tiredness b. 90% of natives still eat plant today B. The Spanish, when they conquered Incas they tried to stop them from using the leaves – if they didn’t use them they couldn’t function C. Dry leaves – a process of fermentation occurs (a chemical change); they are never fully dry – put in pocket of lip and suck most of the day – chew leaves – receive small amount of cocaine a. Natives only used natural form (plant, not drug) b. Never popular in leaf form, the drug was isolated in 1860 D. Used/Recommend use of cocaine to cure alcoholism, morphine addiction, psychotherapy, and local anesthetic… They had no idea it was addictive E. The first Coca Cola was brewed with Coca leaves a. Originally marketed it as head ache relief F. As of today, still use Coca leaves as a flavoring agent minus cocaine (extracted cocaine from leaves) i. Declared illegal as a medical drug in 1914 1. Used still today on the black market Coctaceae Cactus family A. Native to New World- was introduced to Australia and went rapid there a. family is almost completely unique to Americas; one exception: one species in Africa 1. Lophophora Williamsii Common name: Peyote B. Have to chew on it to get a buzz a. There is a whole book about this plants history C. History: a. Used by natives in North America in religious practices, even till today 300,000 people use it today b. They have to be members of the Native American church of North America in order to use it i. They buy it, do NOT grow it 1. Peyoteros – people who grow it c. What does this cactus do to those who chew on it: st i. 1 hour causes nausea and vomiting ii. Next 5-12 hours is the “trip” vivid colors, journeys, time distortion D. The plant, common in New Mexico, is buried in the soil, makes configurations on the ground E. 30-40 alkaloids are in the plant: i. Hallucinogen element = Mescaline Ipomoea tricolor common name: Morning Glory A. Native to North America, used by natives in religious practices B. The seeds of this morning glory has LSD compounds; ingest seeds to go on a trip a. Seeds contain different amounts of drugs, which can be deadly b. Often only used by one or two people in community – the witch doctor, etc. – they knew how to use the plant and didn’t consume much C. 1937 – the drug was extracted from the plant- today, people grow this plant in their backyard Solanaceae Family member Nicotiana tobacum = Tobacco A. On worldwide perspective this plant has had the largest impact on mankind a. Has been used medicinally- subdue pain and hunger b. North America – native to this region B. Thank Christopher Columbus – he brought Tobacco to Europe C. Then the Frenchman Jean Nicot is the primary agent in importing tobacco and selling it a. When Linnaeus decided to name the plant, he thought of Nicot. D. Tobacco became so popular in Europe that it was more profitable for the 13 colonies to grow an acre of tobacco and sell it than anything else a. Tobacco basket (showed in class) – when harvested, harvest whole plant. Then hang the plant upside down for about a month, this dries the plant. During this drying a chemical change occurs in the plant bringing about the aroma we know of a cigar E. Perigue tobacco Grown in Grand Point, LA in St. James Parish a. Natives taught this LA families how to grow and produces this distinctly unique tobacco b. East Coast tobacco businesses contract these families to harvest this crop in order to mix this particular plant with their own tobacco because this particular tobacco is like no other and flavors their own tobacco F. Typical harvesting times: June; then they ferment the plant till January G. Wildly grown in the Caribbean- native to North Americas, now it is grown throughout Americas H. Nicotine a. Stimulates nervous system b. Causes nausea c. Pure form considered a serious poison i. Research is happening on how this can be used as a serious insecticide: if you mix the stuff in a cigar with water, that mixture can kill insects in your garden d. Can be very addictive END OF CHAPTER Next Chapter on Stimulating beverages (Coffee, tea, chocolate, etc.)