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For which P-value is the null hypothesis more plausible: P

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi ISBN: 9780073401331 38

Solution for problem 1E Chapter 6.2

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Problem 1E

Problem 1E

For which P-value is the null hypothesis more plausible: P = 0.5 or P = 0.05?

Step-by-Step Solution:
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Exam2StudySmartQuestions 4/9/1611:51PM BiologicalFoundations o Whenaneuronsendsasignal,itissendinganelectricalimpulsedownitsbody.Itstart inthedendrites,wheretheactionpotentialfromanotherneuronisreceived.The neurotransmittersfromthepresynapticneuroncausesligandgatedsodiumchannelto open.Thisinfluxofsodiumthrowsoffthethreshold,whichis-70mV.Ifthemembrane potentialreachesthreshold,moreandmoresodiumchannelswillopenandtheneuron willdepolarize,sendingdowntheactionpotential.Astheactionpotentialtravelsdown theaxon,moresodiumchannelsopen.Aftertheithastraveledthelengthoftheaxon, sodiumchannelsfarthernorthonthecellbegintocloseandpotassiumchannelsbegin toopen,allowingpotassiumtoflowout.Theneuronovercompensatesandendsupin whatiscalledtheabsoluterefractoryperiod.Duringthistime,therearemoresodium ionswithinthecellandmorepotassiumionsoutsideofthecell.Asthesodium potassiumpumpsbalanceouttheions(2sodiumin,3potassiumout),theneurongoes throughtherelativerefractoryperiod,andeventuallyreachesinrestingmembrane potentialagain. o Axon:lengthoftheneuronwheretheactionpotentialtravelstoreachtheterminalend ofthecell;AxonHillock:connectionbetweenthesomaandtheaxon;Dendrites: Receivesmessagesfromotherneuronsthroughneurotransmitters;SchwannCells:fatty insulationthatallowsforthefastertransmission;Soma:bodyofthecellthathousesthe nucleusandactsasthecontrolcenteroftheneuron;Synapse:Thespaceinbetween neurons;Terminal:endoftheneuronthathousestheterminalbuttons;Terminal Buttons:Sendneurotransmittersacrossthesynapseandpickthebackupthrougha processcalledreuptake. o Whenanactionpotentialreachesthesynapse,itcausesaninfluxofcalciumions.These calciumionsregulateneurotransmittersandthevesiclestheytravelin.Thevesicles fusewiththeendofthesynapseandtheneurotransmittersarereleasedintothe synapticcleft.Theneurotransmittersbindtoligandgatedchannelsonthepostsynaptic membrane.Afterthesodiumchannelshaveopened,theneurotransmittersunbind,and returntothepresynapticcleftinaprocesscalledreuptake.Excitatoryactionpotential increasethelikelihoodofanactionpotentialhappeninginthepostsynapticneuron whileaninhibitoryactionpotentialdecreasesthatlikelihood. o CentralNervousSystem:comprisedofbrainandspinalcord;Brain:receivesand processessensoryinformation,initiatesresponses,storesmemoriesandgenerates thoughtsandemotions;SpinalCord:conductssignalstoandfromthebrain,controls reflexactivities;PeripheralNervousSystem:composedofmotorneuronsandsensory neurons;AfferentDivision:takesinformationfromsensoryorgansandsendstothe CNS;EfferentDivision:takesinformationfromtheCNSandsendittothemusclesand glands;SomaticNervousSystem:controlsvoluntarymovements;AutonomicNervous System:controlsinvoluntaryresponses;Sympathetic:fightorflight;Parasympathetic: restordigest o BrainStem:wherespinalcordenterstheskull;Medulla:oldbrainfunctionshappen withoutconsciouseffort;heartbeat,breathing;Pons:helpscoordinatemovement; Thalamus:takeinsensoryinformationrelatedtoseeing,hearing,touching,andtasting; ReticularFormation:essentialinarousal;sleeping,walking,painperception; Cerebellum:responsiblefornonverballearningandmemory,perceptionoftime, modulatingemotions,controlvoluntarymovement;Hypothalamus:controlsbody temperature,hunger,circadianrhythms,pleasureandreward;PituitaryGland:stores andsecreteshormones;Amygdala:responsibleformemoryconsolidation,fear,and aggression;Hippocampus:essentialtolearningandmemory;CorpusCollosum: connectsthetwolobesofthebrain;CerebralCortex:responsibleforthemostcomplex cognitivefunctions;MotorCortex:controlsvoluntarymovementsandsendsmessages fromthebraintothebody;Somatosensory;Cortex:processesincomingsensations; FrontalLobes:speaking,planningjudging,abstractthinking,personality;Parietal Lobes:senseoftouch,bodyposition;TemporalLobes:comprehension,sound,speech; OccipitalLobes:informationrelatedtosight SensationandPerception o Tobegin,thelightyoureyeissensingtravelsthroughthepupilandisrefractedasit travelsthroughthelens.Thenowupsidedownimageisreflectedontotheretina,and animagethatweneedtofocusinonisreflectedontothefoveaoftheretina.Theridsin theeyedetectlightfromthestimulus,andtheconesdetectthecolor.Themessages fromthephotoreceptorsaresentthoughtheopticnervetothebrain. o Soundisfunneledintotheearbywayofhepinnaandfurtherdirectedthroughthe meatus.Thetympanicmembranetranslateswaveenergyfromthesoundwavesto mechanicalwavestotravelthroughouttherestoftheear.Themalleusisconnectedto theeardrumandvibratesinresponsetothevibratingoftheeardrumandsends vibrationstoincus;theincustakesvibrationsfrommalleusandsendsthemtothe stapes;thestapestakesvibrationsfromtheincusandcompressesthewavessothat theycanbesenttotheinnerear.Asthevibrationsarepassedtothecochlea,theciliaon thenervecellsinsideitbegintovibrate.Thesefrequencieswillbetranslatedintonerve impulsesthatgetsenttothebrainforprocessing. o Interposition:thepartialblockingofamoredistantobjectbyacloserone;Relative Height:withregardtothehorizon,thoseobjectsbelowthehorizonarecloserandthose aboveitarefartheraway;FamiliarSize:usingthesizeofsomethingyouarealready familiarwithinordertodeterminethesizeofsomethingnearit;TextureGradient:a texturenearyouappearsmuchmoredefinedthansoesonethatisfartheraway;itwill appearsmooth;Shadow:thesizeandpositionofashadowofanobjectallowsusto determinethesizeandlocationofsaidobject;LinearPerspective:parallellinesseemto convergewhentheyarefartherinthedistance;MotionParallax:aswemove,objects thatareclosertousmovefasteracrossourfieldofviewthatdoobjectsthatareinthe distance;Accommodation:themovingandshapingofthelensrelativetothedistanceof theobjectfromthelens;BinocularDisparity:thedifferencebetweenthetwodifferent imagesyoureyessee;Convergence:thecloserasobjectistoyoureyes;themorethey cross;thefartheraway,thelesstheycross o Proximity:weperceivethingsclosertogetherasmoreofagroupthanthosefarther apart;Similarity:weperceivethingswithsimilarcharacteristicstobepartofagroup; GoodContinuation:wearemorelikelytoseelinesascontinuousthanasindividual linesmeeting;Closure:wewillmentallycloseopenshapesbecauseourbrainsprefer wholefigurestopartialones o Inversion:aflippedimageontheretinavstherightsideupimageinthebrain; Microsacades:smallperceivablemovementsvsonesmoothcontinuouspicture;Optic Disk:adarkspotorskipintheperceivedimagevstheimagewitheverythingfilledin; CheckerBoardIllusion;thetwosquaresarethesamecolorvsthevarianceincolorwe perceive ConsciousnessandAwareness o Tobeselfawareistounderstandthatyouexistasadifferentbeingfromtherestofthe world.Scientistscanseethisinchildrenwhenchildrenareputinfrontofthemirror withamarkontheircheek.Ifthechildmotionstowardsthemark,itcanbeconcluded thatthechildrecognizesitselfasitselfinthemirror.Theoryofmindistheabilityto understandthatotherpeoplehavebeliefs,desires,intentions,andperspectivesthatare differentthanourown.Scientistscanseethisinchildrenbytellingthemaboutagirl andherfriendwhoarepayingwithaball.Thefirstgirlputstheballinabasket,adthen leavestheroomtogotothebathroom.Herfriendthenmovestheballinputsitina nearbybox.Ifyouaskthechildwherethefirstgirlisgoingtolookfortheballwhenshe returns,childrenwithnotheoryofmindwillsaytheboxbecausetheyhavenotyet realizedthatthefirstgirldoesnotknowherfriendputinthebox.Childrenwitha developedtheoryofmindhoweverwillacknowledgethatfact,andtheywillsayshewill lookinthebasketwheresheleftit. o Depressants(AlcoholandXanax)decreaseCNSarousalanexcitabilitylevels,making youfeelsedated.Stimulants(CocaineandMethamphetamine)increaseCNSactivity, increasingalertnessandproductivity,orinducingaeuphoricstate.Hallucinogens(LSD andEcstasy)causehallucinationsandeuphoricsensations.Narcotics(Opiumand Heroine)giveaverystrongpleasureresponse.Cannabinoids(WeedandHash)createa feelingofbeingsedated,butnotimmobilized. o Cocainepreventscertainneurotransmittersfrombeingreabsorbedsotheylingerinthe synapse,causeagreatereffectinthebrainandbody.AlcoholbindstoGABAreceptors andblocksglutamatereceptors,increasinginhibitoryeffectsanddecreasingexcitatory effects. o LSDisknowntohassimilarcharacteristicstoserotoninneurotransmitters,andbinds toserotoninreceptors.Heroineworksonthedopaminergicsystem,shuttingdownthe releaseofinhibitoryneurotransmitterswithoutregulation.Marijuanabindsto cannabinoidreceptors.,whichalsoshutdowninhibitoryresponses,allowingdopamine tobereleasedwithoutregulation. SexandRelationships o Perceivedsupportcomesfromknowingthatpeoplearethereforyou,ifyoushould needthem.Receivedsupportisactuallyreceivingthesupportfromothers.Support networkshousepeoplewhoyoucantalktoifyouneedto,butwithwhomyoudonot alreadyhaveadeeprelationshipwith.Thissupportnetworkcanleadtothingslike lowerstressandahighersatisfactionwithlife. o Naturalselectioncomesfromcharacteristicsthatallowforindividualsurvival.Sexual selectioncomesfromcharacteristicsthathelponefindamate.Bothmenandwomen findkindness,dependability,andintelligence.Menalsopreferyouthandbeauty, symbolsoffertility,whilewomenpreferambition,asignthattheirmatewillbeableto provideforherandherchildren. o Sexualinfidelitymakesmenmorejealous,andtheyprotecttheirrelationshipwith violenceandaggression.Emotionalinfidelitymakeswomenmorejealousandtheyare morelikelytoenhancetheirappearanceandevoketheirpartner’sjealousytofendoff poachers. o Loveiscomposedofpassion,commitment,andintimacy.Liking(intimacy)isfoundin closefriendships.Infatuatedlove(passion)isseenwith“loveatfirstsight”.Emptylove (commitment)isseeninarrangedmarriages.Romanticlove(passionandintimacy)is seeninarelationshipwherethepartnerslikeeachotherandarephysicallybonded. Companionatelove(intimacyandcommitment)isfoundinlifelongrelationships withoutphysicalwants.Fatuouslove(compassionandcommitment)isseenin whirlwindcourtships.COnsumatelove(passion,intimacy,andcommitment)is somethingnotmanypeopleachieve. o XYZstatementshelpavoidplacingpblameandcauseingyourpartnertobecome defensive.Activelisteningmakessureyoupartnerfeelsliketheyarebeingheard. Paraphrasingreviseswhatyourpartnerissayingsotheyunderstandthatyouare earingthem.Perceptioncheckingisaskingyourpartnerhowtheyfeelandwhatthey arethinkinginsteadofreadingtheirmind.Validationinvolvesacknowledgingand respectingyourpartner’sopinion,evenifyoudonotreadilyagree.Negativeaffect reciprocityoccurswhenpartnersgobackandforthwithnegativeemotionsat eachother. 4/9/16 11:51 PM o 4/9/16 11:51 PM o

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 6.2, Problem 1E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 4
Author: William Navidi
ISBN: 9780073401331

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 1E from chapter: 6.2 was answered by , our top Statistics solution expert on 06/28/17, 11:15AM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists , edition: 4. Statistics for Engineers and Scientists was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073401331. Since the solution to 1E from 6.2 chapter was answered, more than 259 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “For which P-value is the null hypothesis more plausible: P = 0.5 or P = 0.05?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 16 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: hypothesis, null, plausible. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 153 chapters, and 2440 solutions.

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For which P-value is the null hypothesis more plausible: P