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A new material is being tested for use in the manufacture

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi ISBN: 9780073401331 38

Solution for problem 4SE Chapter 6

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

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Problem 4SE

A new material is being tested for use in the manufacture of electrical conduit, to determine whether it will reduce the variance in crushing strength over the old material. Crushing strengths are measured for a sample of size 16 of the old material and a sample of size 20 of the new material. If it is shown that the crushing strength with the new material has smaller variance, the new material will be used.

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IN CLASS NOTES 3/29/2016  RNA IS GENERALLY LESS STABLE THAN DNA  ZIKA VIRUS ORIGINATES FROM AN AFRICAN FOREST, AND A STRONG CORRELATION WITH MICROCEPHALY (SMALL HEAD). CAPSID WITH BINDING PROTEINS AND AN ENVELOPE OF HOST MATERIALS THAT CONTAINS PROTEINS E AND M, WHICH ARE STUCK INTO THE ENVELOPE.  MAKING DNA o REPLICATION: DNA TO DNA. EXACT COPYING. o TRANSCIPTION: DNA TO RNA. ONE STYLE TO ANOTHER. o TRANSLATION: RNA TO PROTEIN. SAME INFORMATION BUT IN AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT FORM.  DNA: HAS SUGAR-PHOSPHATE BACKBONES HELD BY COVALENT BONDS AND THEN THE BASES INBETWEEN ARE HELD BY HYDROGEN BONDS THAT COIL AROUND THEMSELVES. COILS AND UNCOILS TO EASE TURNING ON/OFF GENES. BASES ARE ALWAYS PAIRED ONE LARGE W/ ONE SMALL.  TALK ABOUT REPLICATION: o UNWRAP TWO STRANDS BY A ENZYME PROTEIN CALLED HELICASE. (HELICASE HAS HIGHLY CHARGED SIDE CHAINS TO CHANGE ELECTRICAL ATMOSPHERE TO BREAK UP A HYDROGEN BOND “VIA MELTING”.) o REPLICATES ENTIRE CHROMOSOME o INSIDE NUCLEUS, RANDOM NECLEOTIDES JUST FLOATING AROUND COME AND INSERT THEMSELVES INTO THE DNA AFTER, LOOSELY HELD BY HYDROGEN BOND. o SOMETHING COMES ALONG TO MAKE A COVALENT BOND IN THE BACK: DNA POLYMERASE (TAKES INDIVIDUAL MOLECULES OF BASE TO MAKE A MACROMOLECULE OF DNA.) UNITES PHOSPHATES AND SUGARS IN BACKBONE AND EDITS VIA LOOKING AT DIAMETERS o SEMI-CONSERVATIVE REPLICATION: ACTS AS AN EDITOR WHILE NEW MOLECULE IS BEING MADE AND KNOW WHAT STRAND IS ORIGINAL, TO INCREASE LIKELIHOOD OF EXACT REPLICATION. IF THE .0001 ERROR RATE (1/10000) PASSES, MORE IMPLICATIONS.  TALK ABOUT TRANSCRIPTION: o TAKE DNA AND MAKE A BASICALLY DISPOSABLE REPLICATION OF THE GENE. o ONLY TRANSCRIBES A SPECIFIC PART OF THE CHROMOSOME o A MOLECULE COMES IN RNA POLYMERASE DOES (1) OPENS STRAND AND (2) CLOSES DNA BY COVALENT BOND FORMATION BUT DOESN’T FIX/CHANGE MISTAKES SO ERROR LIKLIHOOD IS MUCH LARGER BECAUSE PRODUCING SINGLE STRANDED MOLECULE, CAN’T COMPARE. MUCH FASTER PROCESS THAN DNA POLYMERASE. ENDS UP WITH PRIMARY RNA TRANSCRIPT CARRIES INFO FOR MAKING PROTEIN o INTRONS AND EXONS. REMEMBER SOME VIRUSES STICK GENES INTO CHROMOSOMES OF HOST = INSERTED ELEMENT. ALL OF US HAS ACCUMULATED HUGE TONS OF SOMEONE ELSES DNA CARRIED INTO OUR DNA. TO EXPRESS OUR OWN GENES, THIS EXCESS IS CUT UP AND TOSSED. END UP WITH MUCH SMALLER PIECE OF RNA CALLED MRNA= CARRIES INFO FROM NUCLEUS TO CYTOPLASM TO START GENE EXHIBITION o CODON: 3 LETTER CODES FOR PUTTING ONE AMINO ACID INTO THE PROTEIN. PART OF MRNA. ONE SET OF 3 PIECES OF INFORMATION TO STATE WHICH AMINO ACID GOES NEXT.  TALK ABOUT TRANSLATION: o TRNA= TRANSFER RNA. SOME SMALL PARTS THAT ARE DOUBLE STRANDED. AT ONE END, SET OF THREE NUCLEOTIDES THAT ARE COMPLIMENTARY TO A CODON. o GLOBULAR, SUBUNITS THAT COME TOGETHER AT RIGHT TIME. (LARGE IS CALLED GHOST AND SMALL IS CALLED DUCT) SMALL RIBOSOMAL UNIT + LARGE RIBOSOMAL UNIT (HAS TUNNEL)  INTACT RIBOSOME  RNA COMES THROUGH, PROTEIN COMES OUT o SEQUENCES OF UACG, CARRIES INFO OF HOW AMINO ACIDS GO IN! o MESSENGER (MRNA) TRANSFER (TRNA) RIBOSOMAL (RRNA) o AUG CODON IS START. ALWAYS. 2 DIFFERENT STOP SEQUENCES: (UGA, UAA, UAG)  EFFECTS OF MUTATIONS o OUTSIDE OF REPLICAITON, HAS A 50/50 CHANCE OF CHOOSING TO FIX WRONG ONE. o SKIN CANCER  CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION IS AN EXAMPLE OF REPRESSION. OPERATOR, REGULATOR, PROMOTOR. WHY ARE ONLY FOUR ETHNIC GROUPS ABLE TO DIGEST LACTOSE INTO ADULTHOOD LOOK AT REG AND OPER: HOW COULD A MUTATION OF THOSE THINGS ENABLE SOMEONE TO BECOME LACTOSE INTOLERANT 2 HUMAN BIOLOGY NOTES 3/31 LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, REVIEW SHEET, IMMUNITY  ON LACTOSE INTOLERANCE: REMEMBER THAT PROMOTOR IS BEFORE THE OPERATOR. BEFORE BOTH IS CALLED THE REGULATOR. IF THERES A MUTATION IN THE PROMOTOR, IT CAN’T RECOGNIZE IT AND A PERSON WOULD BECOME LACTOSE INTOLERANT. MUTATING A REGULATOR WOULD CAUSE IT TO BE PERMANENTLY ON WHEN MODIFIED SO CAN’T BIND TO OPERATOR.  1. MUTATION IN OPERATOR TO NOT ALLOW REGULATOR TO BIND: ON PERMANENTLY 2. MUTATION IN PROMOTOR CANNOT RECOGNIZE RNA POLYMERASE: OFF PERMANENTLY 3. REGULATOR DOES NOT PRODUCE RIGHT REPRESSOR OR IT IS A WRONG TYPE 4. OR, MASSIVE DELETION OF DNA. IF NOT EXISTANT, CANNOT HAVE REGULATION OF LACTASE.  ON THE REVIEW: o THREE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RNA AND DNA: 1. RNA IS SINGLE STRANDED, DNA IS A DOUBLE HELIX. 2. DNA HAS THE ABILITY TO SEPARATE IT’S NUCLEOTIDES: RNA ONLY HAS ONE STRAND SO IT CANNOT SEPARATE. 3. DNA HAS LESS ABILITY TO EASILY MUTATE THAN RNA. o CHESTER’S RESPONSE: DNA IS DOUBLE STRANDED WHILE RNA IS SINGLE STRANDED. HOWEVER, SOME PARTS OF RNA AND RIBOSOMAL RNA IS DOUBLE STRANDED. DNA IS MORE STABLE, RNA IS LESS STABLE. D IN DNA IS DEOXYGENATED WHILE RNA IS. DNA HAS THYMINE, RNA REPLACES IT WITH URACIL. THE POLYMERASE IS AN EDITOR. o THE QUESTION OF THE DAY: WHICH EVOLVES THE FASTEST PAPILLOMA VIRUS (DNA VIRUS), INFLUENZA VIRUS (AN RNA VIRUS), HIV (AN RNA RETROVIRUS). INFLUENZA BECAUSE THERE ARE SO MANY TYPES AND ONLY SOME VACCINES. WE CAN MAKE A VACCINE AGAINST INFLUENZA BUT IT ONLY WORKS AGAINST A STRAIN. IT’S NOT PERMANENT. IT CONSTANTLY CHANGES. EVEN IF YOU GET IT ONCE, YOU HAVE TO GET IT AGAIN AND AGAIN EVERY YEAR. THE VACCINATIONS AGAINST PAPILLOMA VIRUS ARE LIFE LONG (BUT ONLY DEFEND AGAINST THE 4 MOST COMMON ONES) BECAUSE THEY CHANGE VERY SLOWLY. SMALLPOX IS ALSO A DNA VIRUS: SOME EUROPEANS AND AMERICANS MADE SMALLPOX STRAINS A WEAPON. HIV IS AN RNA VIRUS, SO WE COMPARE IT TO INFLUENZA. WHAT DOES RETROVIRUS MEAN MEANS IT GOES FROM DNA TO RNA. HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF A SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION AGAINST INFLUENZA OR HIV WHICH EVOLVES MORE QUICKLY ALL HE SAYS IS HIV EVOLVES VERY VERY QUICKKLY o REPLICATION HAPPENS IN CELL NUCLEUS. TRANSCRIPTION TAKES PLACE IN THE NUCLEUS. TRANSLATION HAPPENS IN CYTOPLASM OF CELL. ALL INVOLVE THE REPLACEMENT OF DNA WITH DNA, RNA, OR AMINO ACIDS. IMMUNITY  THE THREE LAYERS TO IMMUNITY: NON SPECIFIC DEFENSE IS CALLED INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM BECAUSE WE ARE BORN WITH IT AND PROVIDES GENERALIZED AND NON-SPECIFIC DEFFENSES. ON NON-SPECIFIC DEFFENCE  PHAGOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES. ENGULF AND DIGEST INVADERS LIKE BACTERIA. HAVE MOVING PROJECTIONS TO SEEK OUT INVADERS. ON THEIR SURFACES THEY HAVE MANY PROTEINS TO COMMUNICATE WITH OTHER CELLS AND IDENTIFY.  MACROPHAGES, NEUTROPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, NATURAL KILLER CELLS. THERE ARE TWO WE WILL USE: ONE IN IDENTIFYING OUTSIDERS. NATURAL KILLER CELLS CAN KILL CELL THAT’S BEEN INFECTED OF SELF AS WELL AS STUFF LIKE CANCER.  SELF RECOGNITION VS. NON SELF RECOGNITIONS. ON THE SURFACE OF ALL CELLS HAVE PROTEINS CALLED ANTIGENS. THESE ARE ON THE SURFACE OF ANY POTENTIALLY-PORING CELL. WE USE THE DOCKING CELLS TO IDENTIFY THE VIRUS.  PHAGOCYTES EAT THE BAD THINGS: PUT IT INTO SMALL BALL OF CELL MATERIAL (IS CALLED A VESICLE) AND THEN FUSES WITH A LYSOSOMAL. REMEMBER THAT LYS MEANS TO SPLIT, SO IT DISSOLVES THE CELL MEMBRANES OF BACTERIA CELL.  INFLAMMATION: COMPLEMENT PROTEINS POKE HOLES IN BACTERIA AND EITHER SWELLS OR LEAKS ITSELF OUT AND DIES BECAUSE IT CAN’T CONTROL WATER EQUILIBRIUM. 2  IN A FEVER, BODY TEMPERATURE GOES UP. BUT IF YOU REDUCE A FEVER DURING A HUGE INFECTION, IT LASTS LONGER. FEVER MAKES BODY AN UNCOMFORTABLE PLACE FOR BACTERIA TO LIVE. SO, THEY’RE NOT REPRODUCING BETTER THAN ABILITY TO KILL THEM.  IRON SEQUSTRATION: LONG LASTING FEVERS GIVE ANEMIA. IF YOU GIVE PEOPLE IRON SUPPLEMENTS, INFECTION LASTS EVEN LONGER BECAUSE OUR BODIES TAKE MINERALS THAT BACTERIA NEED AND HIDE THEM SOMEWHERE SO BACTERIA IS DEPRIVED TO CONTROL GROWTH AND REPRO BY REDUCING THEIR NECESSARY NUTRIENTS.  GENERALIZED NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY SUMMARY: PHAGOCYTES (EAT OTHER CELLS), NATURAL KILLER CELLS (TARGETS OWN CANCEROUS CELLS OR INFECTED CELLS), INFLAMMATORY (CELL HISTAMINES  SWELLING, WARMING, REDDENING, TENDER BC OF HISTAMINES THAT CAUSE CAPILLARIES TO OPEN WIDE TO GET MORE FLUID IN.), COMPLEMENT PROTEINS (NOTA DEFENSE AGAINST VIRUSES. REMEMBER THIS ONE POKES A HOLE. EFFECTS PARASITES AND BACTERIA), INTERFERONS (INTERVENES WITH VIRUSES), FEVER (INTERFERES WITH ENVIRONMENT) ON TRUE IMMUNE RESPONSES  THIS IS SPECIFIC TO THREATS WHEN THEY APPEAR. THIS PREPARTION ALLOWS A MEMORY IN CASE IT DOES COME BACK: PREVENTATIVE AGAINST REINFECTION.  IMPORTANT TYPES WE WILL CONCENTRATE ON: B CELL AND T CELL. GET LETTER FROM ORGAN MATURED. T CELL MATURED IN THYMUS. B CELLS MATURED IN LYMPH NODES. FOR EACH, THEY HAVE TONS OF SUB CATEGORIES.  NAÏVE B CELLS: FLOAT AROUND IN OUR BODY IN CASE THEY’RE NEEDED  EFFECTOR B CELLS: ONE KIND TO ONE INFECTION. IF NEVER SHOWS, STAYS NAIIVE.  MEMORY B CELLS: WHEN INFECTION GONE, LESS LIKELY, HANGS OUT IN LYMPH NODES JUST IN CASE IT COMES BACK.  HELPER T CELLS: STIMULATES OTHER T CELLS AND B CELLS TO DO WHAT THEY DO  CYTOTOXIC T CELLS: SPECIFIC NATURAL KILLER CELLS. LOOKING FOR “I HAVE THIS SPECIFIC PROB KILL ME”  SUPRESSOR T CELLS: AFTER EVERYTHING IS OVER, IT TURNS IT ALL OFF.  AUTOIMMUNE ARISES WHEN T CELLS CAN’T DISTINGUISH BETWEEN HEALTHY OR ERRED CELLS OR THERE’S TOO MANY AND CANT REPRESS, SO THEY WERE NATURALLY BORN TO KILL AND IF NO INVADERS JUST KILLS PARTS OF BODY. ANTIBODY MEDIATED DEFENSE AND IMMUNITY  B CELLS ARE COATED WITH TONS OF BINDING PROTIENS THAT CAN BIND TO AN ANTIGEN. REMEMBER TO COMPLETE WORKSHEEET BEFORE NEXT CLASS 3

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Chapter 6, Problem 4SE is Solved
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Textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 4
Author: William Navidi
ISBN: 9780073401331

This full solution covers the following key subjects: material, new, crushing, size, Strength. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 153 chapters, and 2440 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 4SE from chapter: 6 was answered by , our top Statistics solution expert on 06/28/17, 11:15AM. The answer to “A new material is being tested for use in the manufacture of electrical conduit, to determine whether it will reduce the variance in crushing strength over the old material. Crushing strengths are measured for a sample of size 16 of the old material and a sample of size 20 of the new material. If it is shown that the crushing strength with the new material has smaller variance, the new material will be used.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 74 words. Statistics for Engineers and Scientists was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073401331. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists , edition: 4. Since the solution to 4SE from 6 chapter was answered, more than 293 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

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A new material is being tested for use in the manufacture