A new production process is being contemplated for the manufacture of stainless steel bearings. Measurements of the diameters of random samples of bearings from the old and the new processes produced the following data:
a. Can you conclude at the 5% level that one process yields a different mean size bearing than the other?
b. Can you conclude at the 5% level that the variance of the new procedure is lower than the older procedure?
▯ POLI2051 KENNY ▯ WEEK 14 NOTES: CH 15-16 ▯ ▯ ▯ I. Civil Liberties vs. Civil Rights Civil Liberties o Freedoms guaranteed to the individual. o They take form of negative restraints on gov’t o Usually asserted by the “haves” in society o Ex. Freedom of speech Freedom of press Freedom of assembly Freedom of religion Etc. Civil Rights o They declare what government must do or provide. ▯ ▯ ▯ II. Civil Liberties: The Bill of Rights in Context The idea of a national or federal Bill of Rights had very little meaning initially o it was seen as limiting action of the national government, not the state governments. And since authority over individual rights was exercised primarily by state governments, the Bill of Rights did not significantly affect the course of American politics for the first 125 years after it was adopted. State power was not unlimited however. Most state Constitutions contained their own guarantees of rights and liberties, and these Constitutions were interpreted in state courts. The result was that people had some protection against unwarranted governmental intrusions into individual liberty, but there was no uniformity in how these liberties were protected by different states. If you felt your state was wrong, as Mr. Barron did, you could try to change things politically in your state by voting or other means, or you could move to another state with more congenial views. The 14th Amendment (1868) seemed to change all this. o It was one of the civil war amendments designed to protect the rights of newly emancipated blacks. ▯ ▯ ▯ III. Three Constitutional Revolutions. 1. The Nationalization of the Bill of Rights: Gitlow v. New York (1925). o The man was handing out pamphlets around 1919 called the “Left Wing Manifesto” Supreme Court rules that there were some restrictions on freedom of speech – when there was imminent danger to the nation o How did the Bill of Rights come to be applied to actions of the state governments as well as actions of the national government Through the due process clause of the 14th Amendment by a process called selective incorporation. It is a legal concept that has made possible national involvement in the protection of individual rights against state and local officials. It has had the effect of equalizing the rights of the people regardless of residence. 2. The expansion of civil liberties o The Courts moved from a position that the government could impose reasonable limits on individual conduct to the position that limits on individual conduct were presumptively improper unless supported by some compelling justification. For example, Freedom of speech In two cases in the early part of the th 20 century, the Supreme Court moved from this “reasonableness” test to the “clear and present danger” test o Only speech that represented a clear and present danger to the public safety and welfare could be regulated The Court has also held that speech includes other things besides the spoken word o Symbolic expression has been upheld by the Court, but is generally less protected than pure speech o Ex. Flag burning has been upheld as freedom of speech