(II) Stand up two plane mirrors so they form a 90.0 angleas in Fig. 32-47. When you look into this double mirror, yousee yourself as others seeyou, instead of reversed asin a single mirror. Make aray diagram to show howthis occurs.FIGURE 32-47 7 and 8.
HDFS 3/17/2016 Child Abuse Author: Christina Rodriguez Univ. of Alabama Birmingham, Psychology Ph. D Research Interests: Parent risk & child abuse Child Abuse & Neglect: Facts 2012: 3.4 million referrals made to local child protective services of children being abused/neglected 686,000 children victims of maltreatment 18% victims of physical abuse 30% of victims younger than 3 years old 80% perpetrators were parents Physical Abuse vs. Physical Discipline Physical abuse: non-accidental injury to child (intent) Commonly occurs when parents unintentionally escalate physical discipline Physical discipline: use of physical force w/ intention of causing child to experience pain, but not injury, for the purpose of correction or control of the child’s behavior Studying Abusive Parent-Child Aggression Confirmed perpetration represents restricted component of parent- child aggression Maltreatment may be unreported or undetected to CPS Parents identified by CPS likely represent a selective, atypical fraction of those engaging in abusive parent-child aggression Approaches to Studying Parent-Child Aggression Examining beliefs & characteristics that may predict a parent’s risk to physically mistreating a child Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI): measures interpersonal & intrapersonal difficulties & attitudes toward children that may indicate child abuse potential Though widely used, does not explicitly measure information regarding actual discipline practices or maltreatment behaviors Another approach is to examine actual behaviors Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Sale (CTSPC): determines frequency of actual behaviors implemented during parent- child conflict Little research conducted evaluating the association between these two approaches Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Aggression Baumrind conceptualized 3 broad styles of parenting Authoritarian, Authoritative, and Permissive Child abuse is potentially positively associated with coercive parenting approaches and negatively associated with sensitive & consistent parenting Conceptually, Authoritarian parenting would be expected to be related to child abuse risk Current Study Purpose: to evaluate whether child abuse potential, parent-child discipline and abuse, ad dysfunctional parenting styles are correlated Parents engaging in parent-child aggression indicative of child maltreatment were expected to demonstrate greater child abuse potential and more dysfunctional parenting styles Examined over 3 studies Methods for Current Study Child Abuse Potential Inventory Abuse scale: distress, rigidity, unhappiness, problems w/ child & self, problems w/ family, problems w/ others Parent-Child Conflict Tactic Scale Physical Assault Subscale: spanking, slapping, pinching, beating, etc. Parenting Scale Overreactivity and laxness Participants of Current Study Study 1 327 parents of children younger than age 12 Majority female, married, white, w/ at least some college experience or a college degree Study 2 115 parents of children between ages 7-12 Mothers & fathers recruited Majority of parents lived w/ a partner & had average of 3 children Study 3 74 mothers of children aged 7-12 w/ diagnosed eternalizing behavior problems Maltreatment Across Studies Those in maltreatment groups scored higher on CAPI and Parenting Style Scores In Study 2 20% wee in maltreatment group & scored higher on CAPI & Overreactivity Scores In study 3, lower percentage of parents falling into maltreatment group What Does the Study Tell Us There are associations between parenting style, child abuse potential, and physical aggression These factors do NOT cause abuse however (correlation not causation) Differs by situation