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Get Full Access to Calculus: Concepts And Contexts - 4 Edition - Chapter 5 - Problem 49
Get Full Access to Calculus: Concepts And Contexts - 4 Edition - Chapter 5 - Problem 49

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# Estimate the errors involved in Exercise 47, parts (a) and

ISBN: 9780495557425 137

## Solution for problem 49 Chapter 5

Calculus: Concepts and Contexts | 4th Edition

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Problem 49

Estimate the errors involved in Exercise 47, parts (a) and (b). How large should be in each case to guarantee an error of less than 0.00001?

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EXPERIMENTS ● Non-experimental method = do not involve manipulation of an independent research ○ Descriptive research = describes how people think, feel, and behave ● Correlational research = assess whether two measured variables are related to one another ○ Ex. happiness is positively associated with work productivity ○ Provides clues for carrying out experiments that examine possible causal effects ● The researcher designs participants to conditions and manipulates at least one independent variable ● Vary as least one independent variable to assess its effects on participants’ responses Independent Variable ● Thought to influence or cause the behavior ● Has levels ○ Conditions, groups, or categories within the IV ○ Must have at least 2 levels ● Can be discrete or continuous ● Discrete = categorical ○ Qualitative ● Continuous = numerical scale ○ Quantitative differences ● Environmental manipulations = changing the physical or social environment ○ Ex. noise (loud vs quiet) ○ Ex. are people’s memories affected by false info during discussion with another person ● Instructional manipulations = changing the instruction given to one group over another ● Invasive manipulations = creating physical changes in the participants ○ Physical stimulation ○ Drugs Dependent Variables ● Variables the researcher measures ● What has been influenced by the IV ● Typically involve either observations of actual behavior or measures of physiological reactions ● Self-reports (surveys) = closed or open ended behavior ○ Reaction time ○ Frequency of behavior ○ Test scores ● Neurological measures ○ Functional magnetic resonance imaging ● Physiological measures ○ Galvanic skin response ○ Cortisol ○ Facial electromyography ● The milkshake experiment = people’s belief in the kind of shake they consumed affected their hunger levels, even though the same shake was consumed by both groups ● Between-subjects design = each experimental condition has different people ○ Randomized ● Within-subjects design = a single group of people serves in all conditions of the experiment ○ Repeated measures Assigning Participants ● You want to ensure that participants do not differ from one another on various dimensions ○ If groups differ, it’s possible that observed differences in conditions are due to different groups rather than the IV ● Simple random assignment = the groups should end up being equal in most characteristics ● Matched random assignment = matching people on a characteristic that is relevant to the outcome and then assigning one person to one group and another to the other ○ Makes sure both groups have participants who are matched on an important trait ○ Usually requires a pretest ● Control all extraneous variables that may influence participants responses to determine causality ● Extraneous variables = other factors separate from the IV that may affect the behavior of DV and could serve as an alternative explanation for the changes in the behavior ○ You want to minimize or control these Internal Validity ● The degree to which differences in performance can be attributed to an effect of an independent variable ● Involves the relation between the IV and DV ● Your goal is to control for all extraneous factors that might compromise this relation ● An experiment is internally valid when it eliminates all potential sources of extraneous variables ● Nothing can differ between conditions other than the IV Confounding Variable ● An extraneous variable that the researcher unintentionally varies along with the independent variable ● Can seriously undermine the internal validity of the study

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##### ISBN: 9780495557425

The answer to “Estimate the errors involved in Exercise 47, parts (a) and (b). How large should be in each case to guarantee an error of less than 0.00001?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 26 words. Since the solution to 49 from 5 chapter was answered, more than 248 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780495557425. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Calculus: Concepts and Contexts, edition: 4. This full solution covers the following key subjects: Case, Error, errors, estimate, exercise. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 13 chapters, and 628 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 49 from chapter: 5 was answered by , our top Calculus solution expert on 11/14/17, 08:37PM.

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