A well-insulated, rigid tank contains 1.5 kg of Refrigerant 134A, initially a two-phase liquidvapor mixture with a quality of 60% and a temperature of 08C. An electrical resistor transfers energy to the contents of the tank at a rate of 2 kW until the tank contains only saturated vapor. For the refrigerant, locate the initial and final states on a T diagram and determine the time it takes, in s, for the process.
Chapter 11: Basics of Investing Key Point in Investing o Know your goals and risk tolerance o Pay yourself first o Brainless, painless investing o Don’t put all your eggs in one basket o Review and revise your investments periodically Main Questions o Why do you want to invest What is the goal o When will you need the money o How much risk are you comfortable taking Must know your goals o Meet basic needs first Liquidity, savings, debt management o Math your investments to your goals If your goal is security, invest in safe assets If your goal is income, invest in fixed income If your goal is growth, invest in equities o Understand your investments Goal and Risk Tolerance o Also need to know your risk tolerance o Main determinant is time ST investments: use safe LT investments: incorporate riskier assts Main aspects of investments o Safety Price volatility: how much a price bounces around o Income cash o Growth Does it go up in value o Tax implications Taxable, tax deductible, tax deferred, tax free Both IRA tax benefits for when you pull it out during retirement Returns from Investing o Income Interest Dividends Cash DRIPS: dividend reinvestment plan o Capital gains Capital gain= selling price – purchase price Purchase price = tax basis o Paper gains Diversification o Attempt to reduce your risk exposure o Investing in different assets within: Different industries Different economies o Theory: by spreading your investments over a wide range, you aren’t impacted when one investment goes down Diversification reduce the impact of extremes o Reduces your risk exposure o Key to diversifying: Negative correlations Invest in different industries Invest in different assets What can you invest in o Individual stocks, bonds, cds o Mutual funds (active) o Index mutual funds (passive) o Asset allocation mutual funds o Real estate o Business assets o Collectibles Stocks o Corporate stocks Piece of the ownership of the company Higher risk investment- highest return o Making money with stocks Dividends Capital gains Common Stock – Terms o Ticker symbol Stock market abbreviation for company o Last (or close) Last market price from previous days o Hi/Low Highest and lowest market prices during the trading session o Change Yesterday’s closing price minus previous day’s closing price o Sales (1,000s) Trading volume for that stocks (shares) o 52-week Hi/Low Highest/lowest prices during the past year o Div Yield (dividend yield) Total annual dividend/ current price Quarterly dividend/ current price Income stocks have high dividend yields Growth stocks have no/low dividend yields o DRIPs Dividend reinvestment plans Take dividends in stock rather than cash o Beta Measure of volatility (risk) Market beta is 1.0 High beta = higher risk Can be negative Slope of the regression line for a firm’s stock return plotted against market return Beta= CovFirm,Marketriancemarket o Stock Split Attempt by firm to manipulate stock price Convert existing share into new shares Changes tax basis per share Picking Stocks o Earnings history o P/E ratio (Price/ Earnings per share) o Dividend Yield (quarterly dividends) (Dividend per share/ Price per share) * 4 o Beta Measure of volatility o 52- week high/low o Invest in companies you know and understand Buying stocks o Purchase through broker, financial planner, or directly from company DSP =Direct stock purchase from company o Typically pay a commission on purchase and sale o Register your name or street name o DRIP recommended Mutual Funds o Very popular investment assets o Pool of money invested by a manager o 1000s of mutual funds to choose from o Choose MF that matches investment goal o Main types: Money market Capital preservation Income Growth International Specialty Balanced Asset allocation Mutual Fund Loads and Fees o Front – end load Upfront fee that you pay when you purchase o CDSC- contingent deferred sales charge A fee you pay when you sell shares of a MF May be phase out over time o 12b-1 fees A fee to cover marketing expenses o Operating fees Fees associated with managing the MF Lower fees for index or passive funds Actively managed MF have higher fees Types of Shares o Class A: pay a front load fee o Class B: pay a CDSC Higher operating expenses than A shares o Class C: constant load funds Highest operating expenses Choosing a Mutual Fund o Match stated goal of mF to your goal o Look at historical returns o Look at expense ratio and loads o Look at manager and mgt. tenure o Different classes of MF Basic Investment Strategies o Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA) Investing the same dollar amount each period Great to do through automatic paycheck deductions Common sense in action When asset prices are high, money buys less Asset prices are low, buy more Shorter term Investments o < 3 years, keep it safe Savings, MMA, MMMF, CDS Conservative bond mutual fund o 5-10 years, you can take more risk Keep a portion safe Invest a portion for growth and or income As your goal approaches, move to safer investments Asset Allocation o Long term investments o 100-age= % of portfolio in equities Stocks, stock MF, real estate o Remaining portion invested in fixed income Safer assets, but with lower returns Reallocation o Refers to changing the target percentages for stocks vs bonds over time 2 parts: Reallocate you existing portfolio Reallocate your future contributions o Rebalancing: bring existing portfolio back in the target percentages Reduce risk exposure