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Solved: In the steel structure shown, a 6-mm-diameter pin

Mechanics of Materials | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780073380285 | Authors: Ferdinand Beer ISBN: 9780073380285 142

Solution for problem 1.51 Chapter 1

Mechanics of Materials | 6th Edition

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Mechanics of Materials | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780073380285 | Authors: Ferdinand Beer

Mechanics of Materials | 6th Edition

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Problem 1.51

In the steel structure shown, a 6-mm-diameter pin is used at Cand 10-mm-diameter pins are used at B and D. The ultimateshearing stress is 150 MPa at all connections, and the ultimatenormal stress is 400 MPa in link BD. Knowing that a factorof safety of 3.0 is desired, determine the largest load P that canbe applied at A. Note that link BD is not reinforced around thepin holesIMAGE

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StudyQuestionsfortheTextbook:Unit 4 Gingerich PSY325 Spring2016 Chapter12 1. Whydohumanisticpsychologistsbelievephenomenology“ismoreimportantthanthe worlditself”Whataretheimportantelementsofhumanisticpsychology(SeeTable 12.1.Youdon’tneedtomemorizethelist,butdogetafeelfortheseideas.) • Fromaphenomenologicalviewpoint,theonlyplaceandtimeinwhichyouexistisin yourconsciousness,rightthere,rightnow • Abroaderrealitymightexist,butonlythepartofitthatyouperceive—or invent—mattersoreverwillmattertoyou • Youareherenowandcanchoosewhattothink,feel,anddo(don’tcare aboutthepastorfuture) • Humanisticpsychology:thestudyofhumansandhowpeopleperceive,understand, andexperiencereality 2. WhatdohumanisticpsychologistsbelieveaboutfreewillHowisthisrelatedto construals • Theybelievethatthepastdoesn’tmatter,futureisn’thereyet,onlythepresent matters,andthatyouhavethepowertochoosewhatyouthink,feel,anddo • Thisrealizationofthepresentexperienceisthebasisoffreewill • Yourparticularexperienceoftheworldiswhatiscalledtheconstrual • Formsthebasisforhowyouliveyourlife,differentfromeveryoneelse’s • Howyouliveyourlifeàtheexperiencesyouchooseandtheopportunities youperceive;thus,construalsarethefoundationoffreewill 3. WhatyoudothinkaboutSarte’sideasaboutangst–whatitis,whywehaveit,andwhat wecandoaboutitHowdoweavoid“livinginbadfaith”Whatis“authenticexistence” • Failuretoanswerthequestions“WhyamIhere”and“WhatshouldIbedoing”can leadtoanintenseamountofanxietyaboutthemeaningoflife • Maybegintofeelasifyou’rewastingyourlife • Theunpleasantfeelingscausedbycontemplatingtheseconcernsiscalledexistential anxiety,orangst • Badfaith:leadingtheunexaminedlife;doingwhatyouaretoldbysocietyand everyoneelse,andnotlivingittoitsfullestandindividually • Avoiditbynotwastingperiodsofluck,oroftheawarenessofluck(because theyarebrief) • Aslongasyouarealiveandaware,youmustexperienceasmuchofthe worldaspossible,asvividlyaspossible • Don’tchoosethematerialpath • Authenticexistence:awarenessthatyouaremortal,yourlifeisshort,andyouarea masterofyourowndestiny 4. FundercommentsthatfromtheperspectiveofEasternreligions,theWesternexistentialist view“haseverythingbackwards.”Explainthat,aswellaswhatismeantbyenlightenment inBuddhism.DoyouagreewithFunderwhenhesays,“theseideasaredifficulttograsp, especiallyforpersonsraisedinWesterncultures”onpage433 • KeyideaofBuddhism:annatta,or“nonself”theideathattheindependent,singular selfyouexperienceinyourmindismerelyanillusion Page 2 • Thereisnochangingsoulatthecenterofallthis,justamomentarycoming togetherofalltheseinfluencesthatisgonewithinamoment,tobe replacedbyanother • Theyteachthathavingaseparateandindependentselfisharmful • Iagreethattheseconceptsaredifficultforwesternerstograsp,becausewehave neverexperiencedaviewpointlikethis,especiallywithourlackofreligiouseducation outsideofourownwesternreligions 5. Isthereanythingabout“optimistichumanism”thatsoundsliketraditionalexistentialism ortheEasternperspectivedescribedearlierWhataresomeofRogers’andMaslows’key ideasAndwhatwouldyousayaretheprimarydifferencesbetweenhumanismand Freud’spsychoanalyticperspective • TheEasternalternativeharpsonindividualisolation,mortality,andthedifficultyof findingmeaninginlife • Existentialismbeginswiththeexperienceofasingleindividualatasingle momentintime;allelseisillusion • MaslowandRogersbeganwiththestandardexistentialassumptionsthat phenomenologyiscentralandthatpeoplehavefeewill,andthenaddedacrucial idea:thatpeoplearebasicallygood • Peopleseektorelatecloselywithoneanother,andhaveaninnateneedto improvethemselvesandtheworld • Rogers:Self-actualization • Theorganism(anyperson)hasonebasictendency—toactualize,maintain, andenhanceitself • Maslow:HierarchyofNeeds • DifferencesbetweenhumanismandFreud: • Rogersbelievedifyouperceivetheworldaccuratelyandtakeresponsibility foryourchoices,thenyouareafullyfunctioningpersonwholiveswhatthe existentialistswouldcallanauthenticexistence(exceptthisfullyfunctioning personishappy) 1. BelievedyouneedUnconditionalpositiveregardtoachievethis(i.e. noproblemsfromchildhood) • Maslowbelievedthatanybodyfromanybackgroundcouldbecomeafully functioningperson;butifyoufeelthatpeoplevalueyouonlyifyou’re smart,successful,etc.,thenyouwilldevelopconditionsofworth • Thegoalofhumanisticpsychotherapyistohelptheclientbecomeafully functioningperson,whereasFreudfocusedontheperson’sbadexperiences (andRogersprovidedUPR) 6. WhatwasMaslow’stwistonRogers’ideaaboutself-actualizationDescribehow Maslow’stheoryhasbeenapplied,andcomeupwithanapplicationofyourown.Also, howandwhydidKenrickmodifyMaslow’shierarchy • Maslowbeganwiththesameassumptionofself-actualizationasRogersdid, however,Maslowclaimedthatthismotivebecomesactiveonlyiftheperson’smore basicneedsaremetfirst Page 3 • Thus,theHierarchyofneedswasdeveloped • Thisideahasbeenappliedinareassuchascareerchoiceandemployeemotivation • Kenrickmodifiedhis70-year-oldtheoryforevolutionarypsychology • Headdedtheultimategoalofthehumanspecies(humanreproduction)to thetoplabeledas“parenting” • AchievingthisultimategoalisthesameprocessasMaslowstated 7. Doyouknowanyonewhoisafullyfunctioningperson,asdescribedbyRogersIsheor shefreeofconditionsofworth • Seequestion5forthesedefinitions 8. Whatarethebasicsofhumanisticpsychotherapy • Thegoal:tohelptheclientbecomeafullyfunctioningperson • Therapist’sjob:to(1)helptheclientperceivehisownthoughtsandfeelingswithout thetherapistseekingtochangetheminanywayand(2)tomaketheclientfeel appreciatednomatterwhathethinks,says,ordoes 9. RegardingKelly’stheory,whataresomeofyourchronicallyaccessibleconstructsExplain Kelly’sideasthat“everypersonisascientist”(p.440)andthat“actionsthatappear incomprehensibleorevenevilcanmakesense…ifyoucanseethemfromthepointofview ofthepersonwhochosethem”(p.441). • Definition:particularconstructsthataremorereadilybroughttomindincertain individuals • Forex:theideaofdevastatingfailuremightbechronicallyaccessibletoone person,sothatineverythingtheydo,itisintheirmindandaffectshowthey operate • Everyoneisascientist:someonewhoobtainsdataanddevisesatheorytoexplainthe data • Therecanbemanytheoriestoanysetofdata,therefore,thescientist alwayschooseswhichtheorytouse • Thedatayouusetodevelopaninterpretation,ortheoryofwhatthewordis likecomesfromthesumofyourexperiencesandperceptions 10. WhatdidKellythinkwasthetherapist’sroleintherapy • Hebelievedtheprimarydutyofapsychotherapististoleadtheclienttoself- understanding,andhedesignedtheReptestasatooltohelppsychotherapistsdo that(p.441) 11. DoyouspendtimeinflowDoestheactivityyou’rethinkingofmeetCsikszentmihalyi’s definition(skillmatch,challenge,etc.)Doyouagreethatthisis“adecentprescriptionfor happiness” • Flow:thesubjectiveexperienceofanautotelic(thosethatareenjoyablefortheir ownsake)activity—theenjoymentitselfiscalledflow • Thisisagoodprescriptionforhappiness—becauseitissomethingyouenjoyforthe sheerjoyoftheactivity 12. WhatareDeciandRyan’sideasaboutwhatleadstohappiness,andwhatdoesn’tWhich lifegoalsleadtolessdepression,anxiety,andillness • Happinesscanbesoughtbytworoutes: Page 4 • 1.Maximizepleasureandminimizepain(calledHedonia) • 2.Seekingadeepermeaningtolifebypursingimportantgoals,building relationships,beingaware,andtakingresponsibilityforone’schoicesinlife (calledEudaimonia—morecomplexroute) • Peoplewhoemphasizedtheintrinsicgoalsinlifeovertheextrinsicgoalswerehigher invitalityandpositiveemotionality,andlowerindepression,negativeemotions, anxiety,andsignsofphysicalillness 13. Explainpositivepsychologytosomeonewhohasneverheardofit.Whatareitscentral ideasWhatarethecorevirtuescompiledbyresearchers,andhowdidtheydecideon thosesixWhatresearchmightweexpectfrompositivepsychologyinthefuture • Positivepsychologyistherebirthofhumanisticpsychology • Positivepsychologistsinvestigatethetraits,processes,ansocialinstitutionsthat promoteahappyandmeaningfullifeandhavefoundthatmostpeopledonotfind theirlivesmeaningful 14. Howcanweunderstandotherpeople,ifatall • Animplicationofhumanisticpsychologyisthattounderstandanotherperson,you mustunderstandthatperson’sconstruals • Youcanonlycomprehendsomeone’smindtotheextentthatyoucan imaginelifefromtheirperspective(p.450) Chapter13 1. Whataresomeofthelatestdebatesrelatedtocultureandpsychology a. Individualsmaydifferfromeachothertosomeextentbecausetheybelongto differentculturalgroups b. Membersofsomegroupsmaydifferfromeachotherindistinctiveways c. Animportantchallengeforpersonalitypsychistounderstandwaysthatparticular personalitydifferencesvaryfromoneculturetoanother,ordistinguishamong individualswithindifferentcultures 2. HowisenculturationdistinguishedfromacculturationinthistextAredifferences betweenculturalgroupsinnate,orlearned a. Enculturation:differencesbetweenculturalgroupsarealmostentirelylearned,not innate i. Ex:achildpicksupthecultureintowhichsheisborn b. Acculturation:apersonmovesfromonecountrytoanothermaygraduallypickup thecultureofhernewhome 3. Ismorecross-culturalpersonalityresearchneededWhy a. Mostpsychologiststrynottoworryaboutcross-culturalapplicationsateverystep,so theyjustapplyandexplainthephenomenonathandtopeopletheycanstudymost easily b. Asresearchexpandsandaccelerates,psychologistsareinterestedincross-cultural differencesfor3goodreasons: i. Increasinginternationalunderstanding ii. Assessingthedegreetowhichpsychologyappliestopeoplearoundtheworld Page 5 iii. Forappreciatingthepossiblevarietiesofhumanexperience 4. Whymightpeoplelivingabroaddrawmorecreativealiens a. Becausetheexperienceoflivingabroadcanmakeyouamorecreativeperson, especiallyifyoumakeanefforttotrulyadapttotheunfamiliarculture(ratherthan justmerelyvisit)(p.463). 5. Whatismeantbyeticsandemics a. Etics:Theuniversalcomponentsofanidea i. Ex.Allcultureshavesomeconceptionofduty,inthesensethataperson shouldberesponsiblefordoingwhatsheissupposedtodo b. Emics:theparticularaspects i. Ex.Beyondtheeticlistedabove,differentculturesimposetheirownideas aboutwhatthedutyactuallyis(theemics) 6. Whatdoesitmeanifacultureistough,complex,tight,etc.Isiteasytotellwhich culturesfitthoselabels a. Atoughcultureiswhereonlyafewgoalsareviewedasvaluableandtherearefew waysavailabletoachievethem b. Acomplexculturemeansthatitismoremodern,hasahigherGDP,ismore informationbased,hasmorecities,andmorepersonalcomputers c. Atightculturetoleratesverylittledeviationfromproperbehavior 7. Whataresomeofthedifferencesbetweenindividualistandcollectivistculturesthatare “real,interesting,andimportant” a. Moreautobiographiesarewritteninindividualistcountries,andmorehistoriesofthe grouparewrittenincollectivisticcultures b. Collectivist—satisfactioninlifeisbasedonharmonyofone’srelationswithothers i. Individualist—self-esteemismoreimportant c. Peoplefromcollectivistcarefullyobservesocialhierarchies i. Peopleinindividualistarelessattentivetodifferencesinstatus 8. Arepeoplemorebotheredbybehavioralinconsistencyinindividualistorcollectivist culturesInwhichtypeofculturesarepeoplemoreconsistentExplainhowthisrelates toFunder’spointonpage473:“Personalitymatterseverywhereintheworld.” a. Theindividualistviewoftheselfassumesthatthecauseofbehaviorlieswithinthe person i. Therefore,theindividualisexpectedtobehaveconsistentlyfromone situationtothenext ii. Individualistculturesaremoreconsistent(behavioralconsistencyis associatedwithmentalhealthinAmericanculture) iii. Someresearchsuggeststhatcollectivisticculturemembersarelessconsistent fromonesituationtothenext b. Fundersaysthatbecauseindividualdifferencesandassociatedpersonalitytraits appeartobeequallyimportantinbothcollectivisticandindividualistcultures i. Therefore,personalityisequallyasimportanteverywhere 9. Doyouunderstandthedistinctionbetweenhorizontalandverticaltypesofcollectivism andindividualism Page 6 a. Verticalsocietiesassumethatindividualpeopleareimportantlydifferentfromeach other b. Horizontalsocietiestendtoviewallpersonsasessentiallyequal c. Collectivist: i. Verticalmightenforcestrongauthorityonitsmembers ii. Horizontal:mighthaveweakerauthoritybutastrongethicthatenforces equalityandsharing d. Individualist: i. Vertical:strongauthoritybutalsothefreedom(andobligation)tosupport oneselfinamarketeconomy ii. Horizontal:valueindividualfreedombutalsoassumethatmeetingeveryone’s needsisasharedobligation 10. Whatisthe“caution”aboutJapan,withregardtothecollectivism/individualism distinction a. JapanesewouldconformmoretogroupjudgmentsinareplicationoftheAschstudy; JapanisvieweddifferentlyfromU.S. i. ThisisseenasaculturalmythbyTakanoandOsaka ii. Thishighlightsthewaythatacentralaspectofcollectivism-individualism theorycanleadtomembersofcollectivistculturesasbasically“allalike,”and basicallylackingpersonalityaltogether—whichisborderlinedehumanization iii. ThisJapanesecaseshouldremindusthatnotallinitialculturalcomparisons canbesupportedempirically iv. Wemustrememberthatthereisawidevarietyofdistinctiveindividualsin everycultureonEarth 11. Insteadofdividingtheworldintotwotypesofcultures(collectivistorindividualist),some researchersprefertodividethemintothree(honor,face,anddignity).Explainwhatthese are.Also,whywouldpeoplein“honorcultures”beathigherriskfordepression,andhave highersuiciderates a. Westernculturesaresaidtobedignitycultures i. Keyideaofdignityisthatindividualsarevaluableintheirownrightandthis valuedoesnotcomefromwhatothersthinkofthem b. Culturesofhonoremergeenvironmentswherelawsandpolice(forcesofcivilization) areweakornonexistentandpeoplemustprotectthemselves,theirfamilies,and theirownproperty i. Theseareathigherriskfordepressionandhighersuicideratesbecausean insultisanimportantevent,becausetotolerateitcouldsignalweaknessand putone’spersonandpropertyatrisk 1. Theyarehighlysensitivetothreatstotheirreputations c. Culturesoffaceemergeinsocietiesthathavestablehierarchiesbasedon cooperation(i.e.,JapanandChina) 12. Canthesametraitsbeusedtocomparepeopleacrosscultures a. Yes,butthesameoutcomecanbeassociatedwithdifferenttraits i. Considerreligionaroundtheworld,forexample Page 7 ii. Indifferentcountries,somepersonalitytraits(suchastheBig5)don’t translateexactly 1. Socomparingacrossculturescanbedifficult 13. Howmightcollectivistsandindividualistsdifferinthewaytheythinkabouttheself a. Collectivistsfeelmoreapartoftheirsocialenvironmentthanindividualistsdo b. Example:Japaneseparticipantsrememberedmoreinformationaboutthewider contextofavideotheyviewedthanAmericanparticipants i. Japanesewerebetterabletorecognizespecificobjectswhentheysawthem intheiroriginalsettings c. TheseresultssuggestthatanAmericanobservermayseeaspecificobjectorperson inascene,whereastheJapaneseobserverismorelikelytoseeandrememberthe largercontext 14. AretherevaluesthatseemtobeuniversalSeeFigure13.6. a. ValuesSuggestedtobeuniversal:Stimulation;self-direction;universalism; benevolence;conformity&tradition;security;power;achievement;hedonism 15. Onpage490,Fundermakesthepointthatculturaldifferenceswhichshapepersonality maybetheresultofsomethingintheecologicalenvironment,suchas“wherethefish are.”Explain. a. AlessonfromTrukandTahiti(islands): i. InTahiti,fishingiseasy ii. Theecologyissuchthatit'snotadifficultendeavorlikeitisinTruk iii. Youhadtobemuchmoreaggressive,fearless,sensationseekerin Truktogetwherethefishare 1. MeninTrukaremuchmoreaggressive 2. Perhapsthisishowecologyleadstopersonalityandbehavior 16. AretheresignificantgeneticdifferencesbetweenpeopleofdifferentculturesCould geneticsexplainculturaldifferences a. Thedifferencesaresmall,atmost b. Traitsarelikelytobeevenweakerpredictorsofbehaviorattheculturallevelthan theyareattheindividuallevel c. Peoplewithinculturesarewidelydifferentfromeachother d. Thedataavailablesofarcanbeexplainedinseveraldifferentways e. Culturesthemselvesarenotsharplydefinedcategories,andmanypeoplebelongto twoorevenmorecultures i. Withthisbasissocomplex,itishardtoimaginehowgeneticdifferencescan beamajorcontributortoculturaldifferences f. Moreover,wedon’tknowifpersonalitydeterminesculture,orviceversa. (Correlationdoesn’tequalcausation) 17. Funderpositsthattherearethreereasonsthatculturaldifferencesmaybeexaggerated. Whatarethey a. First,cross-culturalpsychologyhaslongbeeninthebusinessoffindingdifferences i. Ifcultureswerepredominantlysimilar,thenthisfieldwouldn’texist Page 8 ii. Evencross-culturalpsychologistsharborstereotypes,whichmayincrease theirtendencytoexaggeratethedifferencestheyperceive b. Second,manystudiesofculturaldifferencesusesignificancetestsratherthan examiningeffectsizes i. Whenstudiedatalargelevel(likeonebigculturalgroup),significantresults areeasytofind c. Third,psychologicalphenomenoncalledoutgrouphomogeneitybias(social psychology) i. One’sowngroupnaturallyseemstocontainindividualswhodifferwidely fromeachother,butmembersofgroupstowhichonedoesnotbelongseem tobe“allthesame” 1. Maydescribemembersofanothercultureasiftheyareallessentially thesame 18. WhatisyourownanswertothequestionFunderasks,relatedtoculturalrelativism,onthe topofpage494:Doesourculturalperspectivemeanthatwehavenogroundsfor condemningtraditions(suchasgenitalmutilationofgirlsinsomeareasofAfricaandAsia) 19. DoyouknowanyonewhoisbilingualItwouldbeinterestingtoaskthemabouttheidea ofthe“twopersonalities,”ifyouhavetheopportunity. a. Theideaof2personalities:biculturalidentityintegration(BII)isaconceptthat measureswhetherindividualsmeasurehighorlowonthetrait i. ThosewhoscorehighonBII:saidtoseethemselvesasmembersofa combinedoremergentjointculturethatintegratesaspectsofbothsource cultures Chapter14 1. What’sthegistofbehaviorismInthisview,whatispersonality(andwhatisn’tit)Can thecausesofbehaviorbeobservedWheredobehavioristsfallontheperson-situation debate 2. Describethefourphilosophicalrootsofbehaviorism. 3. Describethethreetypesoflearninginbehaviorism:Habituation,classicalconditioning (andtheS-Rconceptionofpersonality),andoperantconditioning. 4. IfFunderisrightabouttheeffectivenessofrewardsandthedifficultiesofcorrectlyusing punishments,whydoyouthinkpeople(families,companies,societies,etc.)don’trely moreonrewardstoshapebehavior 5. Thinkaboutpunishmentsyou’refamiliarwith.AretheybeingappliedcorrectlyIfthey aren’tworking,wouldtheyworkifadministeredaccordingtoFunder’ssuggestions 6. WhatisthedistinctionbetweenclassicbehaviorismandRotter’stheoryDiscussspecific andgeneralexpectancies. 7. WhatdidBanduraaddtotheconversationaboutself-efficacyWhatistheimplicationfor therapy 8. DescribeMischel’s“if…then”patternsofresponse(andtheoryofpersonality). 9. Whathavethelearningtheoriststaughtusaboutpersonality

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Textbook: Mechanics of Materials
Edition: 6
Author: Ferdinand Beer
ISBN: 9780073380285

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Solved: In the steel structure shown, a 6-mm-diameter pin