Knowing that the structural tube shown has a uniform wall thicknessof 0.25 in., determine the normal and shearing stresses at thethree points indicated.
Psychology 201Mind and Brain Week 2 & 3 Chapter 2 the scientific method in psychology Theory, hypothesis, data, cyclical process theory: examination based on data hypothesis: prediction based on theory research:test hypothesis—> either support theory or fails to support theory Good theories: generate testable and falsifiable theories can be proven wrong but not right we say (consistent with data) no amount of data can prove a theory “right” 4 goals of psychological science 1) description: mental process and behaviors 2) understanding: (explaining) developing theories of how mind works 3) prediction: using theories to predict thoughts 4) Application/Control: applying theories to influence behavior and though. How do we observe descriptive data: observing and classifying behavior Correlational studies examine how variables er related in the real world ex) sleep and stress are co related Operational definition of variables includes how it is measured (self report, objective, measures) Measure should have validity and reliability. Correlational research drawbacks: casual directionality poor sleep stress Chapter 3 Neurons: receive, transmit, integrate info in nervous system electrical signals within neurons chemical between neurons Dendrites: detect chemicals from neighboring neurons (send chemicals) Cell Body: receives information form dendrites Axon: electrical impulses are transmitted (receive chemicals) synapse: neurons communicate by sending info ion channels: in membrane, allow in and out of cell when neuron transmits signals down axon Agonist: drug enhances neurotransmitters action Antagonist: drug inhibits neurotransmitter action Parts of brain: frontal: thought, planning, movement parietal : touch, spatial relations occipital : vision temporal : hearing, memory Subcostal structures: cerebral cortex: hemispheres thalamus: receives incoming info hypothalamus: thirst, hunger, agression, lust hippocampus: new episodic memories—> brain grows with new memories amygdala: emotional processing & memories basal ganglia: voluntary movement, learning habits Much of what we know about functional specialization in the brain was learned from lesion studies The story of Phineus Gage: An accident with dynamite drove an iron rod into his cheek and through his frontal lobes. He survived the accident but his behavior and personality changed after the accident: lack of ability to plan, control, and assess behavior. Why is the case of Phineas Gage important to psychology It is a miracle that he survived the accident. It was the first demonstration of a relationship between brain structure and personality. It demonstrated that Gage’s cognitive functions were completely intact despite the accident. It demonstrated that humans do not need their leU prefrontal cortex. neural plasticity: change in structure, function, or organization of the brain in response to injurer experience genotype: genetic makeup Phenotype: physical characteristic Contralateral Control: left hemisphere controls right side of body, vice versa