×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Elementary Principles Of Chemical Processes - 3 Edition - Chapter 6 - Problem 6.42
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Elementary Principles Of Chemical Processes - 3 Edition - Chapter 6 - Problem 6.42

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Nitric acid is used extensively for the production of

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780471687573 | Authors: Richard M Felder ISBN: 9780471687573 143

Solution for problem 6.42 Chapter 6

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780471687573 | Authors: Richard M Felder

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition

4 5 1 356 Reviews
31
0
Problem 6.42

Nitric acid is used extensively for the production of inorganic and organic nitrates, for metal treatments of various kinds, and for photoengraving. It is produced by oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide over a platinum-rhodium catalyst, oxidizing the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide, and dissolving the NOz in water: 4 NH3 (g) + 5 Oz(g) ---+ 4 NO(g) + 6 HzO(g) 2 NO(g) + Oz(g) ---+ 2 NOz(g) 3 NOz(g) + HzO(I) ---+ 2 HN03 (aq) + NO(g) A side reaction that lowers the product yield is the oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen and water vapor: 4 NH3 (g) + 3 Oz(g) ---+ 2 Nz(g) + 6 HzO(g) Saturated ammonia vapor, produced by vaporizing pure liquid ammonia at 820 kPa absolute, is mixed with a stoichiometric quantity of air. and the combined stream enters a converter. Prior to being mixed with the ammonia, the air is compressed and passed through a preheater. It enters the compressor at 30C and 1 atm with a relative humidity of 50%, and it exchanges heat in the preheater with the gases emerging from the converter. The quantity of oxygen in the feed is the amount theoretically required to convert all of the ammonia to HN03 In the converter, the ammonia reacts completely, with 97% forming NO and the balance forming Nz. In the short time in which the reaction mixture is in the presence of the catalyst (less than 0.001 s), a negligible amount of NOz is formed. The product gas is subjected to a series of cooling and hydration steps in which the NO is completely oxidized to NOz, which in turn combines with water (some of which is present in the product gas, the rest of which is added) to form a 55 wt% aqueous nitric acid solution. The NO formed in the latter reaction is reoxidized and the added N02 is hydrated to form still more HN03 . The product gas from the process may be taken to contain only Nz and Oz. A simplified flowchart of the process follows. t t R COOLING 55"10 HN03(aq) AND HYDRATION 2 (g) Air Preheated air NH 3(gl PREHEATE ,,~ CONVERTER \...~ NO O2 N2 H 0 (a) Taking a basis of 100 mol of ammonia fed to the process, calculate (i) the volume (m3) of the ammonia vapor and of the air fed to the process, using the compressibility factor equation of state for the ammonia calculation; (ii) the moles and molar composition of the gas leaving the converter; and (iii) the required feed of liquid water (m3) to the cooling and hydration step. (b) Scale up the results calculated in part (a) to a new basis of 1000 metric tons of 55% nitric acid solution produced

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

PHYS Notes Week 7 Feb 22­26 Electric Charge ­ Particles have either a positive or negative charge ­ Combining these particles into atoms/molecules result in three possibilities ­ Negatively charged: object contains more negative particles than positive particles ­ Positively charged: object contains more positive particles than negative particles ­ Electrically neutral: object contains equal amounts of positive and negative particles ­ Nature prefers neutral charges ­ The terms "positive" and "negative" don't mean anything; they just refer to the fact that the charges are opposite ­ Electrostatic/electric force: the force that charged particles exert on each other ­ Objects with the same electrical charge repel each other, while objects with opposite electrical charges attract each other ­ Strong electrical charges can induce an opposite charge in a neutrally charged system ­ Grounding it can neutralize a system’s charge ­ Grounding: touching an object to the ground (the earth is so big that it can absorb any extra charge without problem) ­ Unit of electric charge is a coulomb (C) ­ Derived from base unit of ampere, which is a measure of current ­ Current: rate at which charge moves past a given point in a given amount of time ­ Charge is quantized (comes in basic units based on electrons that cannot be divided) ­ Basic unit of charge: electron ­ Historically led to the development of quantum mechanics ­ Charge is conserved (cannot be created or destroyed, only moved around) ­ Charge moving through materials ­ Conductors vs. insulators ­ Conductors allow electrons to move freely (ex. metal) ­ Everything can be a conductor with enough electricity ­ Insulators don't allow electrons to move as freely ­ Semi­conductors are somewhere in between ­ Superconductors allow charge to move without hindrance ­ Coulomb’s law ­ Force exerted by charged particles on each other depends on the size of the charge of the particles as well as their distance from one another ­ Two positive or two negative charges ­­> particles push away from each other; one negative and one positive charge ­­> particles attract each other * Increasing force means opposite charges (attracting particles) ­ Electric fields: electrostatic forces existing around a charged particle ­ Determine what a field looks like by placing a test charge near it and measuring the force applied to the test charge ­ We draw electric field using field lines ­ Field lines closer together shows stronger force ­ Field lines extend away from positive charges and toward negative charges ­ If we create a field, we can direct a particle through it (old TVs) ­ Charged particles have potential energy ­ Electric potential (voltage): potential energy per electrical charge ­ Electric current: flow of electrons in motion (negative to positive) ­ Produced by voltage ­ Inserting battery into loop of conductive material creates a flow ­ Conduction ­ Some materials conduct electricity better due to resistance of the material ­ Resistance inhibits flow ­ Ohm: unit of resistance ­ Ohm's law: as potential increases, current increases, and when resistance increases, current decreases ­ Series Circuits ­ Battery/power supply: creates a difference in potential energy ­ Path from one end of battery to another (wire or other conductive material) ­­> electrical current ­ Electrons pushed through a resistor, which slows the current down/steals kinetic energy from the electrons to power a machine ­ Power multiple machines by adding multiple resistors to circuit around the circuit ­ Each resistor increases the overall resistance of circuit ­ Parallel circuits ­ Put resistors into a circuit next to each other, creating multiple paths for the electron to move through ­ If one of the paths slows down (because electrons have to slow to enter the resistor), the backed­up electrons move through the next parallel resistor ­ Adding resistors decreases the resistance of the circuit, increasing current flow (like adding lanes to a highway) ­ Too fast of a current is an issue because wires can only hold so much electricity ­ Direct current (DC): current that flows in only one direction ­ Usually used in electronics/devices ­ Alternating current (AC): current alternates direction (60 times/s (60 Hz)), which changes, faster than what we can see (20 Hz) ­ Easier to generate and travel over long distances ­ Argument between Tesla (AC) vs. Edison (DC) because AC is dangerous ­ Edison created the electric chair, which used AC ­ Transformers are used to change between AC and DC

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 6, Problem 6.42 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes
Edition: 3
Author: Richard M Felder
ISBN: 9780471687573

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780471687573. The answer to “Nitric acid is used extensively for the production of inorganic and organic nitrates, for metal treatments of various kinds, and for photoengraving. It is produced by oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide over a platinum-rhodium catalyst, oxidizing the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide, and dissolving the NOz in water: 4 NH3 (g) + 5 Oz(g) ---+ 4 NO(g) + 6 HzO(g) 2 NO(g) + Oz(g) ---+ 2 NOz(g) 3 NOz(g) + HzO(I) ---+ 2 HN03 (aq) + NO(g) A side reaction that lowers the product yield is the oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen and water vapor: 4 NH3 (g) + 3 Oz(g) ---+ 2 Nz(g) + 6 HzO(g) Saturated ammonia vapor, produced by vaporizing pure liquid ammonia at 820 kPa absolute, is mixed with a stoichiometric quantity of air. and the combined stream enters a converter. Prior to being mixed with the ammonia, the air is compressed and passed through a preheater. It enters the compressor at 30C and 1 atm with a relative humidity of 50%, and it exchanges heat in the preheater with the gases emerging from the converter. The quantity of oxygen in the feed is the amount theoretically required to convert all of the ammonia to HN03 In the converter, the ammonia reacts completely, with 97% forming NO and the balance forming Nz. In the short time in which the reaction mixture is in the presence of the catalyst (less than 0.001 s), a negligible amount of NOz is formed. The product gas is subjected to a series of cooling and hydration steps in which the NO is completely oxidized to NOz, which in turn combines with water (some of which is present in the product gas, the rest of which is added) to form a 55 wt% aqueous nitric acid solution. The NO formed in the latter reaction is reoxidized and the added N02 is hydrated to form still more HN03 . The product gas from the process may be taken to contain only Nz and Oz. A simplified flowchart of the process follows. t t R COOLING 55"10 HN03(aq) AND HYDRATION 2 (g) Air Preheated air NH 3(gl PREHEATE ,,~ CONVERTER \...~ NO O2 N2 H 0 (a) Taking a basis of 100 mol of ammonia fed to the process, calculate (i) the volume (m3) of the ammonia vapor and of the air fed to the process, using the compressibility factor equation of state for the ammonia calculation; (ii) the moles and molar composition of the gas leaving the converter; and (iii) the required feed of liquid water (m3) to the cooling and hydration step. (b) Scale up the results calculated in part (a) to a new basis of 1000 metric tons of 55% nitric acid solution produced” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 453 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, edition: 3. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 6.42 from chapter: 6 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 11/15/17, 02:42PM. Since the solution to 6.42 from 6 chapter was answered, more than 241 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: ammonia, nitric, noz, air, converter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 13 chapters, and 710 solutions.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Nitric acid is used extensively for the production of