Predict the products from the reactions of the following amines with sodium nitrite in dilute HCl.
Unit 8: Disorders and T reatments Read chapters 13 and 14 . 1) Be able to define harmful dysfunction. (399) . A behavior or an emotional state that is harmful to oneself or others, as judged by the community or culture in which it occurs . 2) What is a mental disorder How does unusual behavior differ from a mental disorder (399400) . Any behavior or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering, is self destructive, seriously impairs the persons ability to work or get along with others, or makes a person unable to control the impulse to endanger others . . 3) What is the purpose of the DSM What are some of the advantages of using the DSM What are some of the problems with the DSM (400402 and lecture) . The DSM implies that everyday problems are comparable to serious mental disorders . 4) Be able to define and distinguish between categorical or dimensional models of mental disorders. Which model does the DSM primarily rely on (lecture) . 5) What is generalized anxiety disorder (406) . A continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension . 6) What is a phobia How do phobias differ from fears (407) . An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object . 7) What is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) What are symptoms of PTSD (be able to list three) (408) . A disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or lifethreatening event has symptoms such as nightmares, flashbacks, insomnia, reliving of the trauma, and increased physiological arousal . 8) What is obsessivecompulsive disorder How do obsessions differ from compulsions What is the function of compulsions in this disorder (409) . An anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts and repetitive (obsessions), ritualized behaviors (compulsions) . 9) What is major depression How do symptoms differ from normal sadness (410411 and lecture) . A disorder involving disturbances in emotion, behavior, cognition , and body function . 10) One local source of help for suicide prevention is Gryphon Place. If asked on the exam to provide the name of the local suicide prevention center in Kalamazoo, be able to provide this name. Note: The website for Gryphon Place is http://www.gryphon.org . 11) What is bipolar disorder What is a manic episode (411) . A mood disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania occur . 12) What is the vulnerabilitystress model of depression Be able to describe the four contributing factors of this model. (411413) . Approaches that emphasize how individual vulnerabilities interact with external stresses or circumstances to produce specific mental disorders, such as depression . 13) What characterizes borderline personality disorder How does it differ from bipolar disorder (414 and lecture) . A disorder characterized by extreme negative emotionality and an inability to regulate emotions; it often results in intense but unstable relationships, impulsiveness, self mutilating behavior, feelings of emptiness, and a fear of abandonment by others . 14) What is antisocial personality disorder (414415) . A personality disorder characterized by a lifelong pattern of irresponsible, antisocial behavior such as lawbreaking, violence, and other impulsive reckless acts . 15) What is dissociative identity disorder What is the controversy regarding the existence of this disorder Be able to discuss the controversy in detail, including the arguments of the posttraumatic model and the sociocognitive model. (425427) . A controversial disorder marked by the apparent appearance within one person of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits; formerly known as multiple personality disorder . 16) What is schizophrenia Be able to list and describe the five core abnormalities associated with the disorder. (427429) . A psychotic disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized and incoherent speech, inappropriate behavior, and cognitive impairments . 17) Be able to list and describe the four main classes of drugs used for the treatment of mental disorders. (435437) . Antipsychotic drugs (Neuroleptics) – Drugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; they are often used off label and inappropriately for other disorders such as dementia and impulsive aggressiveness . Antidepressant drugs – Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety . Antianxiety drugs (Tranquilizers) – Drugs commonly prescribed for patients who complain of unhappiness, anxiety, or worry . Lithium carbonate (type of salt) – the apparent success of a medication or treatment due to the patient’s expectations or hopes rather than to the drug or treatment itself . 18) What are the cautions about drug treatments that the book lists (437440) . publication bias – The tendency for journals to publish positive findings but not negative or ambiguous ones Many publishers have financial ties in the pharmaceutical industry Placebo effect – The apparent success of a medication or treatment due to the patient’s expectations or hopes rather than to the drug or treatment itself High relapse and dropout rates – A person may only have shortterm success with antipsychotic or antidepressant drugs. Anywhere from ½ to 1/3 of people stop taking medications due to the unpleasant side effects. Those people are likely to relapse Disregard for effective, possibly better nonmedical treatments – Drugs are typically the more popular source of treatment. This is due to advertisements and rise of popularity by consumers Unknown risks over time and drug interactions – The effects of taking antidepressants indefinitely are still unknown, especially for vulnerable groups such . 19) What is the main goal of psychodynamic therapy (442) . All different forms of psychodynamic treatment share a goal of exploring the unconscious dynamics of personality, such as defenses and conflicts . 20) How does flooding differ from graduated exposure (443) . Flooding – In behavior therapy, a form of exposure treatment in which the client is taken directly into a feared situation until his or her panic subsides . Graduated exposure – In behavior therapy, a method in which a person suffering from a phobia or panic attacks is gradually taken into the feared situation or exposed to a traumatic memory until the anxiety subsides . 21) What is systematic desensitization Be able to describe its relation to counterconditioning. (444) . In behavior therapy, a stepbystep process of desensitizing a client to a feared object or experience; it is based on the classicalconditioning procedure of counterconditioning . 22) What is cognitive therapy How do mindfulness and acceptance based therapies differ from traditional cognitive therapies (445447 and lecture) . A form of therapy designed to identify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking and, hence, to reduce negative emotions . 23) What is behavioral activation (lecture) . 24) What is clientcentered therapy (447) . A humanist approach, devised by carl rogers, which emphasizes the therapist’s empathy with the client and the use of unconditional positive regard . A humanist approach, devised by Carl Rogers, which emphasizes the therapist’s empathy with the client and the use of unconditional positive regard . 25) Be able to describe the scientistpractitioner gap. What is meant by empirically supported treatments (452453 and lecture) . 26) Review the “When Therapy Helps” section in your textbook. What types of therapies have the most empirical support (454455) . Cognitive therapy’s greatest success has been in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression . . 27) Be able to list and describe the risks associated with psychotherapy. (458459) . The use of empirically unsupported, potentially dangerous techniques . Inappropriate or coercive influences, which can create new problems for the client . Prejudice or cultural ignorance on the part of the therapist . Sexual intimacies or other unethical behavior on the part of the therapist . . 28) Be able to list and explain the suggestions the book provides for being a smart consumer of psychological treatments. (461)