A particular diode is found to conduct 0.5 mA with a junction voltage of 0.7 V. What is its saturation current IS? What current will flow in this diode if the junction voltage is raised to 0.71 V? To 0.8 V? If the junction voltage is lowered to 0.69 V? To 0.6 V? What change in junction voltage will increase the diode current by a factor of 10?
On Rulers 4.12.16 Democracy in America & politics of the governed 4.14.16 On weak vs strong democracy Participation is lower in weak democracies (this is by design) Theories of democracy often vary on degree to which citizens are participants in political process o In weak democracies, political participation is limited to voting o In strong democracies, exercising political voices beyond voting: campaigning, protesting, engaging elected officials, active deliberation, art & culture Weak vs strong theories of democracy Robert Dahl, Guardianship Discussion btw “demos” & aros”, they argue ideas of democracy Guardianship as an attractive alternative to democracy Platonic hierarchy of rulers/philosopher kings o Goes back to Plato, who put a big emphasis on political knowledge, which isn’t available to everyone. Lenin’s vanguard of worker’s revolution Qualities needed for responsible rule: o Moral understanding (fairness, justice) o Virtue (individual vs common interest) o Technical knowledge required to make decisions (policy, law, economics) Counter argument: o TJ: state a moral case to a ploughman & a professor. Former will decide it as well & often better than latter bc he hasn’t been led astray by artificial rules Should we have guardianship system in US to direct us to common good Or is the existing political system sufficient Don’t we already have technocratic/guardianship Aren’t most things that matter decided behind closed doors Burke on weak democracy Elected representatives need to maintain distance from their local constituencies so they can see big picture Parliament is a deliberative assembly of one nation, w/ one interestthat of the whole where not local purposes, not local prejudices, out to guide, but general good, resulting from general reason of the whole Representatives should act as guardians of common good Tocqueville on American Democracy Lack of aristocracy & monarchy in America Tyranny of the majority Not enough checks against majority rule o Same checks that will develop over time o You can’t just let the people rule themselves Domination (Europe) vs hegemony (US) Benjamin Barber on strong democracy First one to have these views On Rulers 4.12.16 Democracy in America & politics of the governed 4.14.16 Weak democracy: to exercise franchise is unhappily to also renounce it Against representation: representation is incompatible w/ freedom bc it delegates & thus alienates political will at cost of genuine selfgov’t & autonomy o Citizens become subject to laws they didn’t truly participate in making Strong democracy: in participatory mode resolves conflict in absence of independent ground thru participatory process of ongoing, proximate selflegislation & creation of political community capable of transforming dependent private individuals into free citizens & partial & private interest into public goods Nonliberal democratic theory: rights, equality, freedom; they do not define but are defined by politics Where does freedom come from: **will be on final o Our rights & freedom & equality comes from God or state of nature Politics of the Governed 4.14.16 Amy Gutmann & Dennis Thompson on “Deliberative democracy” Democracies are stronger when there is space for deliberation Definition: requires of representatives that they justify their decision in terms answerable to call citizens > arrive at binding policy decision Aims to minimize differences w/ opponents by offering them mutual respect Is this enough to ensure a “strong democracy” along lines of Benjamin Barber Role of media Bush makes the case for war Saddam Hussein as threat to world peace (not just America) US has no selfinterested ambitions Coalition of willing – duty, honor, peace, hope & self defense US as liberators of Iraqi people Fighting terrorism abroad rather than at home Piece by Gutmann and Thompson “as debate proceeded, it became clear that almost no one disagreed w/ view that world would be better off is Saddam Hussein no longer ruled…” Debate did not represent kind of discussion that deliberative democrats hope for, & deliberation was cut short once US troops began their invasion in March 2003. Imperfect deliberation that preceded war prepared found for less imperfect deliberation that followed. Was Tocqueville right “I know of no country in which there is so little independence of mind & real freedom of discussion as in America” Bush’s rhetoric limits debate No critical/independent thought prior to war Complicity of mainstream media For deliberate democracy to work, mainstream media must have some kind of independence from political/economic interests On Rulers 4.12.16 Democracy in America & politics of the governed 4.14.16 India: Colonialism 101 British weren’t in India to rule responsibly o They were there to make money Western development & nonwestern underdevelopment are intimately related (economics) Rule of colonial difference (legal) Flexible positional superiority (cultural) Political dimensions: domination & hegemony o Hegemony is defined by consent o Domination: in colonies, no consent **not all of this stuff ended after the end of colonialism Postcolonial nationalism Deeply shaped by colonialism o It’s very much about ending colonial relationship o Rejects colonial inequalities, accepts political values & ideals of Enlightenment Colonial middle class Independence & postindependence Indian constitution: universal franchise, outlawing of social inequalities (caste, religious, gender) socialist development, secular Similarities btw India & US: both had radical constitutions for their time 1950s: state led development & modernization o Challenge: first transform society, then develop & modernize, or other way round Chatterjee Two kinds of democracy in India Elite & popular democracy Civil society o Key part of western conceptions of democracy o Sit of popular sovereignty o Citizens associating as private (equal) citizens’ w/ rights o Associating or organizing w/ other citizens to further some general or particular interest/will o Present in India, but not majority political culture Political society Key part of nonwestern practices of democracy Site of popular democracy Citizens associating as population (unequal) groups w/ entitlements Targets of gov’t enumeration, classification, welfare & aid (dependents) Make collective demands on gov’t institutions for social survival (housing, employment, solace) in precarious circumstances Majority political culture in India, precedes civil society Challenges/opportunities of political society On Rulers 4.12.16 Democracy in America & politics of the governed 4.14.16 Urban population explosion > proliferation of slums Electoral politics in cities > patron/client relations, ongoing negotiations Slum residents as political entrepreneurs > social survivalists Nongov’t organizations where gov’t is absent Legal/paralegal/ illegal > regularization of slums & informal economy Rights vs entitlements Capabilities vs utilitarian approach to development Moral claims for entitlement as basis for political community/identity Everyday we live in face of the tiger > urban renewal/removal Postliberalism (1990s) > cleaning up city, attracting investment Land acquisition for urban development Elite & popular democracy in India Elite have access to civil society Poor have access to political society No longer urban vs rural distinction Increasingly cities embody this distinction in physical landscape civil