The article “Solid-Phase Chemical Fractionation of Selected Trace Metals in Some Northern Kentucky Soils” (A. Karathanasis and J. Pils, Soil and Sediment Contamination, 2005:293–308) presents pH measurements of soil specimens taken from three different types of soils. The results in the following table are consistent with means and standard deviations reported in the article.
a. Construct an ANOVA table. You may give a range for the P-value.
b. Can you conclude that there are differences among the mean pH levels?
Animal Taxa - Vertebrates • deuterostomia —anus formed ﬁrst —smallest and least diverse group • chordates —characteristics A. dorsal hollow nerve chord B. notochord (becomes spine) C. pharyngeal slits (become gills or jaw) D. post-anal tail • majority of vertebrates are bony ﬁsh • ray-ﬁnned ﬁsh are most diverse vertebrates • evolutionary adaptations of vertebrates —notochord —vertebrae —jaws —lungs —lobed ﬁns —limbs with digits —amniotic egg —milk (only mammalia) • tetrapods (developed limbs with digits to walk on land) —amphibia —reptilia —mammalia • amphibia —frogs and toads —salamanders and newts —caecilians • reptilia —birds —lizards and snakes —turtles —tuataras • mammalia —3 main groups A. monotremes (lay eggs) B. marsupials (pouches) C. eutherians (placental mammals) —over half of all mammals are rodents • compared to amphibians, amniotes have reduced reliance on water in their reproductive cycle Mammals & Metabolic Trade Offs • characteristics of mammals —hair —milk produced by mammary glands (intense parental investment in offspring, very metabolically expensive) —sound conducted through 3 middle ear bones (malleus, incus, stapes) —lower jaw made of single dentary bone • homeothermy - stable internal body temp despite external inﬂuence, can be regulated behaviorally or metabolically (pelycosaurs ﬁrst animals to display this) • poikilothermy - variable internal body temp • trends (metabolically expensive) —larger brains —larger and more muscles —upright limb posture —nocturnal habits • how do mammals make up for metabolically expensive adaptations —heterodonty (specialized teeth): efﬁciency in processing food —secondary palate: breathe while eating, uninterrupted oxygen supply —endothermy: blood vessels in fossilized bones, evidence of whiskers and fur • endothermy - generation and regulation of body temp metabolically, maintain activity in different conditions, takes a lot of energy • ectothermy - generation and regulation of body temp using environmental heat, takes little energy • body form and function —if a trait has adaptive function (inﬂuences successful survival and reproduction) then its form reﬂects its function —form and function is reﬂected at all scales (molecular, cellular, tissues, etc.) —3 embryonic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) give rise to 4 kinds of tissues A. connective B. nervous C. muscle D. epithelial —solutions to similar physical constraints reﬂect evolutionary constraints —powered ﬂight has evolved 4 times: insects, pterosaurs, birds, bats —2 general principles that inﬂuence form and function in organ systems A. body size and surface area to volume ratio: smaller animals eat more per unit body mass, larger animals have longer life spans B. increase surface area by ﬂattening, folding, branching