A12-V battery is connected to three capacitors in series. The capacitors have the following capacitances: , and . Find the voltage across the capacitor.
STUDY GUIDE FOR TEST 2 (Spring 2016 ) CHAPTER 5: EARLY CHILDHOOD: Body and Mind 1. Describe typical changes in weight and height per year. BMI is lower at 5&6 than at any other time of life. Children gain about 4 ½ lbs and 3 inches per year. By age 6 (average in developed nation): weighs 5060 lbs, 3 ½ feet tall, has adultlike body proportions (legs half total height) 2. Describe the epidemic of heart disease and diabetes. Overfed children grow up to become overweight children. Predicted 228 million people in 2020 will have diabetes due to unhealthy eating habits acquired in childhood. 3. Does appetite increase or decrease Then why the obesity problem Decrease. Parents still feel the need to make them eat so they bribe them to eat some dinner with allowing them to get a piece of cake after dinner. When the kids only eat a few bites of dinner, but the whole sugary cake they gain the wrong kind of weight. Decreases between 1&6. They get less exercise 4. Define "just right" to describe rigidity of young children. Insist on certain foods prepared and served in a particular way. Sometimes this might signify OCD, but this is normal in 3 year olds. Even familiar foods may be rejected if presented in a new way. By 6 rigidity fades. 5. Onethird of all young U.S. children have tooth decay. Prime causes Too much sugar and too little fiber. Soda and punch, even diet soda contain acid that makes decay likely. 6. Describe their gross and fine motor skills. Mastery depends on maturation and practice. Delay in fine motor skills. Brain/body not fully developed with both sides of body. Gross: skipping, cartwheels, somersaults, (center of gravity moves from breast to belly), improve dramatically, lots of practice Fine: drawing, not as proficient 7. What is the leading cause of death Unintentional accidents/injuries Primary prevention: macrosystem makes harm less likely. Reduces risk of sickness, injury, or death for everyone of any age. Ex: universal immunization and reduced pollution Secondary prevention: more specific, averting harm in highrisk situations or for vulnerable individuals. Ex: Kids who are genetically predisposed to obesity, this might mean exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, no soda or sweets in home or school, and frequents play outside. Tertiary prevention: after harm has occurred, limiting damage. Ex: If kid falls and breaks arm, a speedy ambulance and a sturdy cast are tertiary prevention. Drowning – immediate mouthtomouth. 8. Describe changes in the brain during preschool years (brain weight, myelination, prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, limbic system). How might these changes explain gains in language, thinking, and motor control, along with problems of impulsiveness and perseveration At 2: brain 75% of adult weight. At 6: 90% of adult weight Myelination: insulating process neural fibers (axons and dendrites) acquire myelin covering where weight gain occurs. White matter of brain. Speed of transmission from one neuron to another. By age 6, kids can see an object and name it immediately. Prefrontal Cortex: performs brain’s executive functions (planning, selecting, and coordinating thoughts). executive function advances dramatically, but doesn’t fully develop until 25. Limited in infancy, begins to function in early childhood. Let’s them plan ahead and think about past situations (who to invite to bday party). Corpus Callosum: Axon fibers connecting two cerebral hemispheres. Where right and left side of brain cross/connect. Not developed until later. Growth makes communication between hemispheres more efficient, coordinate both sides of body. Failure could make autism. Limbic System: major brain region crucial for development of emotional expression and regulation. 3 main areas a. Amygdala: register emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. Increase activity can mean nightmares or phobias. b. Hippocampus: central processor of memory, especially memory for locations. c. Hypothalamus: brain area that responds to amygdala and hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body. Ideally occurs in moderation. 9. Describe the functions of the left and right sides of the brain. Left: controls right side & logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and basics of language Right: left side & emotions, creativity, appreciation of music, art, and poetry Both sides of the brain normally involved in almost every skill, leftright distinction has been exaggerated. 10. Define and describe the preoperational stage, and describe limitations of preoperational thinking, including centration, egocentrism, static reasoning, irreversibility, and understanding of conservation. Explains what we can’t do. Focuses on 26. Preoperational thinking: kids do not use logical operations (reasoning processes). Centration: focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of all others. See one dimension and ignore others. Ex: Doesn’t understand that a father can be a son as well. Egocentrism: See world entirely from own personal perspective. Not selfishness – when kid buys a racecar for mom, they clearly show they expected her to love it. Piaget’s most deficient aspect. Static reasoning: believing that the world is unchanging, always in the state they encounter it. Ex: kids can’t picture parents as kids. Irreversibility: fail to recognize that reversing a process sometimes restores whatever existed before. Thinks nothing can be undone. Conservation: Superficial changes in the outward appearance of an object do not alter its basic qualities. Kids don’t recognize this. 11. Describe Vygotsky's views on social learning, along with the role of scaffolding. Define ZPD. Vygotsky: develop inner thought, selfdirection, selfregulation, special communication with self. Believed that every aspect of children’s cognitive development is embedded in a social context. They are curious and observant. Thinking is shaped by other people’s wishes and goals. Emphasized social aspects of development. Power of culture, acknowledging that “the culturally specific nature of experience is an integral part of how the person thinks and acts” as several developmentalists explain. ZPD: zone of proximal development – intellectual area where new ideas and skills can be mastered. Physical and cognitive – person can exercise only with assistance, not independent. Scaffolding: temporary sensitive support, to help them within their developmental zone. Provided by a mentor. 12. Trace the development of "theory of mind." A person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. In order to have a theory of mind, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are. That realization after age 4. Emergent ability, slow to develop but typically beginning in most children at ~4. 13. What makes early childhood the ideal time for learning language Brain maturation, myelination, scaffolding, and social interaction. Sensitive period – rapidly and easily mastering vocab, grammar, and pronunciation. “language sponges” – soak up every drop of language they encounter. 14. Explain when and why fast mapping occurs. Before age 2 and accelerate over childhood. Retain the meaning of new words after a single exposure. Assimilate new words. The speedy and sometimes imprecise way to learn new words by placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning. (Like saying any animal that moves is now called a dog.) 15. What strategies increase literacy Codefocused teaching: in order to learn to read they have to “break the code” from spoken to written words. Book reading: vocab and familiarity with books increase when adults read to kids, allowing conversation and questions. Parent Education: stimulate cognition Language enhancement: mentors enhance vocab and grammar Preschool programs: learn from teachers, songs, excursions, and other kids. Metamemory: Think they can remember everything without using memory techniques Mnemonics: Rehearsal: numbers, repeat, 7 year old start Reorganization: “chunking” Elaboration: make up story/image – sophisticated, lots of mental ability. Knowledge base: limited Chi’s Study: used children vs. college kids. Children experts in chess. Use chess pieces and have to replace where they were. Kids won. Then had to repeat numbers back. College kids won. 16. Describe common errors of language, including logical extension, overregularization. Logical extension: after learning a word, kids use it to describe other objects in the same category. Ex: “Dalmatian cows” because she saw a Dalmatian dog. Overregularization: Apply rules of grammar when they shouldn’t. “Foots” “Daddy wented to work” This is actually evidence of increasing knowledge. Use recast: correct without making fun of them. “You’re right, Dad went to work.” Overextension: apply verbal label too broadly (call any 4 legged animals the same name) Egocentric thinking: create a word and expect you to understand Verbal centering: word means 1 thing Articulation: th, ph, etc. difficult saying – elementary is the time to go to speech class if it’s still difficult Collective monologue: reflects egocentrism – conversation with self, next to another kid. “I got a new jacket” “I saw superman” “My jacket is really soft” “Superman is the coolest ever.” – not a conversation with each other but with selves. 17. Distinguish between childcentered early childhood education programs and teacherdirected programs. Know the history of Head Start, and evidence regarding the benefits of this program. Childcentered: stress each child’s development and growth. Encourage artistic expression. Influenced by Piaget&Vygotsky. Teachers are crucial – guide and scaffold so that each child advances. Physical room allows selfpaced exploration. Seek out work. No testing to see improvement, only wanting to learn in her own way. Teacherdirected: Stress academics, taught by one adult to the entire group. Learn names, letter, numbers, shapes, and colors. Every kid follows schedule. Not allowed to create a story until they learn to write letters correctly. Head Start: most widespread earlychildhood educational program in the US. Began in 1965, funded by federal government. Formal education before first grade (4 year olds). Thought to foster their cognition and health. Lifting families out of poverty, promoting literacy, providing dental care and immunizations, teaching Standard English. Started childcentered – now teacherdirected. A kid who was never exposed to math now is playing games with numbers and mathematical understanding. Improved literacy, math, oral health, and parental responsiveness. Although, it faded after first grade. 18. What has research found to be the most effective way to teach English to children of Hispanic heritage while simultaneously improving their Spanish Balanced bilingual: speaking two languages so well that no audible hint suggests the other language. They don’t favor one over the other. Transfer is neither automatic nor inevitable. Need to hear twice as much talk as usual. CHAPTER 6: EARLY CHILDHOOD: Psychosocial Development 1. According to the text, what is the preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between the ages of 2 and 6 Emotional Regulation: controlling when and how emotions are expressed When emotional hot spots of limbic system connect with prefrontal cortex. 2. Describe what happens during Erikson’s stage of Initiative vs. Guilt. Undertake new skills and feel guilty when they cannot succeed at them. Initiative: saying something new, expanding an ability, beginning a project. Don’t stifle initiative. Guilt: Depending on outcome of new thing they tried, they feel either proud or guilty. 3. How would you describe the selfconcept of most young children What role does protective optimism play in their psychosocial development Selfconcept: understanding of self. Choosing makes people believe they are independent agents. In US – gender and size. Kids selfconcept is not accurate. Erikson saw that kids thought they are strong, smart, and goodlooking and think any goal is achievable. Selfconcept is thought to be good. Protective optimism: encourages children to try unfamiliar activities, make friends, begin school, and so on. 4. What's the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation What are effective ways of increasing motivation Intrinsic: do something for the joy of doing it or for becoming smarter or more competent. (a musician makes music even when no one else is going to hear it) Encouraging is crucial in teaching young children, eager to play and practice. Extrinsic: outside the person – do something to gain praise or other reinforcement like money (musician play for applause or money). Undercuts intrinsic. Praise and prizes might be appreciated but that’s not why they do it. When playing a game, they might not keep score, but just want to have fun. 5. Describe the development of emotional regulation in boys and girls. (p. 210) Girls are advanced in controlling their emotions, particularly anger, compared with boys. Mistreated Boys are likely to externalize Mistreated girls are likely to internalize. By age 5, without emotional regulation, maltreated boys throw and hit & girls sob uncontrollably or hide. 6. Is play essential Give examples of how play varies by culture. Play is timeless and universal. Believe play is most productive and most enjoyable activity. Whether play is essential is a controversial topic. Some want kids to focus on reading and math skills, others predict emotional and academic problems for kids who rarely play. Maturation is required for social play. Two year olds are not good with playmates. Worldwide: if a child is playing it is a sign of healthy development. It is a prime activity. Delay in fine motor skills so practice and safety – precautions. Until 6. 7. Describe different types of active play (roughandtumble, sociodramatic) Roughandtumble play: mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but no intent to harm. Sociodramatic play: pretend play where children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create. 8. Describe Baumrind's parenting styles, along with typical characteristics of their children. Authoritarian: in control, expect obedience, “Because I said so!”, leads to rebel kids Authoritative: love and limits, rules, chores, responsive, warm, freedom, flexible, reasons for rules Permissive: nurturing, accepting, rare authority, kids are parents’ friends, consult kids on major decisions. Kids are indecisive, don’t know rules, anxious. RejectingNeglecting: dangerous, tell kids they don’t care, cold, devastating. Leads to kids that are aggressive, criminal, rebel, brats, decrease in school work 9. What are the effects of electronic media on children's development Can be harmful. Recommend no electronic media at all for kids under 2, and strict limits after that. – the problem is that violent media teaches aggression, nonviolent media takes time away from constructive interaction and creative play. 10. Explain sexrole identity development according to different theorists. Observe and act, parents reinforce appropriate ways. Freud: (psychodynamic) Guilt leads to identification – “Oedipus complex” or “Electra complex” 34 aware of penis (or lack of) and see that mom/dad does/doesn’t have one and likes them, then becomes like the one who has the same genitalia. Believed boys have better superego due to penis process. 2: apply gender labels (Mr. Mrs. Lady, man) consistently 4: convinced that certain toy (dolls/truck) and roles (dad, mom, nurse, police) are suited for one sex or the other. Gender schema: concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences – boys more rigid. 11. Know Freudian terms (Oedipus complex, Electra complex, identification) Oedipus complex: son having feelings for mother, jealous of father Electra complex: daughter having feelings for father, jealous of mother Identification: Guilt leads to Identification – “can’t beat them, so join them” meaning you can’t be the dad or mom and have the person you desire, so you mimic the person of your gender so you’ll be able to get the person you want. 12. Distinguish between sex differences and gender differences. Sex differences: biological differences Gender differences: culturally prescribed roles and behaviors. 13. Define gender schema. What is appropriate to do/wear/say for your gender. Gender schema: concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences Boys schema is more rigid. 14. Distinguish between prosocial and antisocial actions. Due to nature or nurture How can parents encourage prosocial behavior Prosocial: spontaneous efforts to help others who are in need. Evidence of empathy, extending helpfulness and kindness without any obvious benefit to oneself Feeling distress may be part of nature; acting/responding to distress may be part of nurture. Antisocial: deliberately hurting another, including those who have done no harm. (verbal, physical, social exclusion) 15. Compare/contrast instrumental, reactive, relational, and bullying aggression. Instrumental: Increases 26. Want something they don’t have, so they just take it. Results in hitting, crying, and resisting the grab. Reactive: impulsive retaliation for a hurt that can be verbal or physical. 25. 5 year olds usually stop and think first. Relational: verbal attacks intended to destroy another child’s selfesteem. Becomes more hurtful as children mature. Bullying: unprovoked, physical or verbal attacks. Should be stopped before school age. 16. What causes and controls aggression Describe different disciplinary techniques used to respond to preschoolers' aggressive behaviors (corporal punishment, psychological control, timeout, induction) Studies show parents who use corporal punishment – it works at the time but kid becomes bullies, delinquents, abusive adults, less likely to learn quickly, not attend college. Timeout: remove them from situation, very effective, calming, thinking, reflecting, ideally not reinforcing behavior. Rule of thumb: 1 minute per age they are. You can’t do it angrily, child will feel rejected. Induction: explain why behavior was wrong, what effect it had on others. Appeal to empathy and social emotions. “lecture” Psychological control: withdraw your love, shame them, use guilt. May reduce academic achievement and emotional intelligence. 17. Is spanking OK (pp. 230231). What are longterm effects of spanking Studies show parents who use corporal punishment – it works at the time but kid becomes bullies, delinquents, abusive adults, less likely to learn quickly, not attend college. A problem is the attitude and emotions of the parent. Fear the parents, learn what not to do in front of their parents. 18. What are the different types of child maltreatment Which is most common Child abuse: deliberate action that is harmful to a child – physical, emotional, or sexual wellbeing. Child neglect: failure to meet child’s basic needs – physical, emotional, educational. (most common) Reported: authorities have been informed. 2.73.6 million per year since 1993. Substantial: reported, investigated, and verified. 1 in every 90 kids age 25 is substantiated. More neglected than abused. 19. What did Currie & Widom (2010) find about longterm effects of child maltreatment Concluded that abused and neglected children experience large and enduring economic consequences. Women more impaired than men. CHAPTER 7: MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: Body and Mind 1. How would you describe growth during middle childhood compared to during infancy and adolescence Slow but steady growth. Slower growth, greater strength. Selfcare is easy. Muscles, heart, and lungs become strong. 2. Why are fewer children suffering from chronic medical conditions and fatal illnesses Immunizations, lethal/fatal accidents less common. Better medical care. Children have better habits (washing hands, cover sneezes). Asthma most common chronic illness. 3. Describe advantages of active play or exercising for children, but also some reasons why children do not get enough physical activity. Advantages: Health, less obesity, appreciation of cooperation and fair play, problem solving abilities, respect for teammates. Risks: loss of selfesteem (cruel coaches/teammates), injuries, reinforcement of prejudice (especially against other sex), increased stress (evidence of altered hormone levels, insomnia). 4. Describe the growing problem of obesity among children in middle childhood. How have rates of childhood obesity changed sincth1980 Childhood obesity: described as BMI above 95 percentile of kids that age. 201018% of 69 kids obese. 1980: more than doubled. 5. What percent of children are overweight, and what percent are obese What role does sweet/fatty food advertisements play in possibly explaining the obesity rates Overweight: We are no longer rising in US, but at a plateau of 32.6 (one third) of 611 year olds are overweight, more than half obese. Correlates with asthma, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol. Ads: amount of unhealthy foods on tv correlate with childhood obesity. 6. Describe Piaget’s concrete operational stage, including new abilities (and limitations) of concrete operational thought. Concepts that enable kids to use logic, to work, to produce. Logic is applied to visible, tangible, real things – no abstract thinking until formal operations. Conservation: superficial changes in the outward appearance of an object do not alter its basic qualities. Classify: Things can be organized into groups according to some characteristic they have in common Compare 7. How do concrete operational thinkers generally do on seriation and classification tasks Seriation: understanding that things can be arranged in a logical series – crucial for alphabet or number sequence. Use categories and subcategories more flexibly and inductively. 8. Describe how culture affects instructional methods (p. 255). Which method is best (it depends, of course!) Children from that culture are expected to learn by watching other and to help one another if need be. 9. Describe advances in children's intelligence, according to informationprocessing researchers. (e.g., increases in reaction time, selective attention, components of memory, knowledge base, metacognition) Information processing perspective: benefits from tech, allows more detailed data and analysis. Inspired by knowledge of how computers work. Prefrontal Cortex and Myelination is increasing. Selective Attention: concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others. Reaction time: quicker with each passing year of childhood due to myelination and repeated sequences of action. Allow for faster, more efficient learning. 10. How might metacognitive skills help a student Metacognition: understand thinking and hot it works. Realize that people can think different than selves. Thinking about thinking. Know correctness. 11. Describe advances in language, especially pragmatics. 6 know thousands of objects. Mastered basic vocab and grammar. Learn up to 20 new words a day. Communicate well in different situations. 12. What are different ways to teach a new language Immersion: placed in a regular class with native speakers (their second language) Bilingual Schooling: instruction in 2 languages. ESL (English as a second language): kids who don’t speak English are all put in a classroom with the hope they’ll learn together. 13. What might account for the outstanding performance on TIMSS and PIRLS among children in Finland Teacher may be a part. Top 3% are accepted into teacher’s school with all 5 years paid for, so it’s a demanding and highly held job. Then they are granted more freedom with their classrooms. 14. What gender differences are found in school performance Gender differences: narrowed or disappeared. In middle childhood girls have higher grades overall though. 15. What's the difference between achievement and aptitude tests Aptitude: potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge. (IQ test) Achievement: measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, or some subject. Compare scores to norms. 16. Describe the nature of intelligence, including "general intelligence," Gardner's multiple intelligences, and Sternberg's "triarchic" theory of intelligence. Multiple: human intelligence comprised of varied set of abilities rather than a single, allencompassing one. Some high, some low abilities. 17. How do nations educate children with special needs or gifted children Why do some nations choose not to separate these children from other students LRE: least restrictive environment – mainstreaming them. RTI: response to intervention – below average are given special intervention. IEP: individual education plan – teacher, parents, kid sit down and discuss educational future when child seems to not be performing in any other intervention. Finland doesn’t separate kids because they want to prevent labels (they change faster than kids do). Every teacher works to help each child with specific needs. CHAPTER 8: MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: Psychosocial Development 1. Describe Erikson's fourth stage and provide support for the claim that children of this age need to be productive. What might be an advantage of having a sense of industry Industry vs. Inferiority: attempt to master new skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent. Far more vulnerable to criticism than younger age. Practicing whatever skills culture values, or busy with their own stuff. Sense of industry: intrinsically joyous, fosters selfcontrol that is a crucial defense against emotional problems, decide whether winner or loser, defense against early substance abuse. 2. What are children's psychosexual needs, according to Freud Latency: emotional drives are quiet and sexual conflicts are submerged. Up to age 12. 3. What changes in selfconcept are usually seen during middle childhood Selfconcept: ideas about themselves – intelligence, personality, abilities, gender, ethnic background. Increases and becomes more specific/logical. 4. Why is social comparison particularly powerful during middle childhood 611: become more concerned with opinions of peers, parents, strangers, older kids. 5. Perhaps because of the increasing selfunderstanding and social comparison, what happens to selfesteem Selfesteem: hopefully increases with more time spent with friends of their age, sports, etc. Low selfesteem correlates with high academic achievement (in Estonia). 6. How can children survive and even thrive when their families are experiencing significant adversity Have high resilience (dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity) 7. What's the difference between shared and nonshared environments Which one accounts for most variability in children's personality traits and intellectual characteristics Shared: less affected by this than non. Both kids experience same environment. Nonshared 8. Explain what 'differential sensitivity' means. One child is more affected, for better or worse, than another. Although, each child interprets environment different based on age, gender, resilience, etc. (A 9 year old girl might be more affected by moving than her baby brother because she’s leaving friends). 9. Why is a harmonious, stable home particularly important during middle childhood What are the challenges military families face in meeting this need Provide protective, predictable routines within a home that is a safe haven for everyone. Military families: stability is nonexistent. Children crave stability. 10. In what kind of family structure do most 6 to 11yearold children in the U.S. live (Table 8.2) Nuclear family with a two parent family. 11. Compare advantages/disadvantages (for children's development) of these different kinds of family structures. Children living with two biological married parents experience better educational, social, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes than do other children. 12. What kinds of children are popular and unpopular (in the U.S.) Popular: kind, trustworthy, cooperative (childhood). Athletic, cool, dominant, arrogant, th and aggressive (5 grade). Unpopular: neglected, but not actively rejected by peers. Ignored, but not shunned. Other types psychologically harmed. 13. Compare/contrast aggressiverejected and withdrawnrejected types of unpopular children. Aggressiverejected: rejected by peers because of antagonistic and confrontational behavior. Withdrawnrejected: rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior. 14. Define bullying, know the different types, and describe characteristics of bullies, victims, and bullyvictims, along with the relationship to popular/unpopular statuses. Describe gender differences in bullying. Bullying: repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm those who are unable or unlikely to defend themselves. Physical, verbal, relational (destroying peer acceptance and friendship), cyberbullying Bullyvictims: (provocative victims) someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. Neither friends, nor sympathizers. Gender difference: boys accept boys who bully girls, but girls almost never bully boys. 15. What can be done to stop bullying in schools State policy. Empathy can be taught through cooperative learning, friendship encouragement, and school pride. “whole school” approach – parents, teacher, bystander, victims, bullies – everyone involved. 16. Why might middle childhood be a prime time for moral development These are years of eager, lively searching. Trying to understand things, figure them out, weigh rights and wrongs. Time for growth of moral imagination. 17. Describe Kohlberg's three levels of moral reasoning (Table 8.3) Preconventional Moral Reasoning: rewards and punishments, selfcentered level. Conventional Moral Reasoning: emphasis is placed on social rules, parent and communitycentered level. Postconventional Moral Reasoning: moral principles, centered on ideas. 18. Give examples of how the morality of children differs from the morality of adults. Adults praise school, kids play hooky. 19. What role does parenting style play in instilling moral values in children (pp. 311 312) Restitution: restoring what was lost. Follow by example, lecture, etc. Conversation on topic makes them reflect.